Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Shock. Introduction to Shock Perfusion Adequate blood and oxygen are provided to all cells in the body. Hypoperfusion The cardiovascular system."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Shock Perfusion Adequate blood and oxygen are provided to all cells in the body. Hypoperfusion The cardiovascular system collapses and fails. Blood circulation decreases and eventually ceases.
Damage Caused by Shock Brain 4 to 6 minutes Abdominal organs 45 to 90 minutes Skin and muscle cells 3 to 6 hours
Perfusion Triangle Shock occurs when one or more of the sides is not working properly.
Causes of Shock (1 of 4) Cardiovascular Pump failure Cardiogenic shock Content failure Hypovolemic shock or hemorrhagic shock
Causes of Shock (2 of 4) Cardiovascular (cont’d) Poor vessel function Neurogenic shock Combined vessel and content failure Septic shock
Causes of Shock (3 of 4) Noncardiovascular Respiratory insufficiency Chest injury Airway obstruction Anaphylactic shock Medications Food Insect stings
Causes of Shock (4 of 4) Noncardiovascular (cont’d) Psychogenic shock Fainting, or syncope Causes include fear, bad news, and unpleasant sights.
The Progression of Shock (1 of 2) Compensated shock The body can still compensate for blood loss. Decompensated shock Late stage of shock Falling blood pressure Irreversible shock Final stage Terminal
General Care for Shock (1 of 6) Monitor breathing. Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), if necessary. Control external bleeding.
General Care for Shock (2 of 6) Position the victim: If spinal injury is not suspected, elevate the head.
General Care for Shock (3 of 6) Position the victim (cont’d): An unresponsive or stroke victim should be placed in the recovery position.
General Care for Shock (4 of 6) Position the victim (cont’d): Use a half-sitting position for victims with breathing difficulties, chest injuries, or heart attack.
General Care for Shock (5 of 6) Position the victim (cont’d): If spinal injury or leg fracture is suspected, keep the victim flat.
General Care for Shock (6 of 6) Loosen tight clothing at the neck, chest, and waist. Splint bone or joint injuries. Keep the victim warm. Handle the victim gently. Seek immediate medical care.
General Care for Anaphylaxis Call 9-1-1 immediately. Monitor breathing. Administer epinephrine.
Administering Epinephrine Auto-Injector (1 of 3) Check the expiration date. Remove the safety cap.
Administering Epinephrine Auto-Injector (2 of 3) Support the victim’s thigh. Place the injector between the hip and knee on the victim’s thigh. Push the injector firmly. Hold for 10 seconds.
Administering Epinephrine Auto-Injector (3 of 3) Reinsert, needle first. Dispose of properly.
Care for Psychogenic Shock (Fainting) (1 of 3) If you feel faint: Lie down or sit down. Do not place your head between your knees.
Care for Psychogenic Shock (Fainting) (2 of 3) If someone else faints: Check for breathing. Begin CPR and call 9-1-1 if necessary. Keep the victim flat. Raise legs 6 to 12 inches unless an injury is suspected. Check for possible head and spine injuries.
Care for Psychogenic Shock (Fainting) (3 of 3) If someone else faints (cont’d): If weakness, dizziness, or pain is present during walking, suspect a head injury. Call 9-1-1 and treat for possible spine injury. Check and treat injuries related to falling. Allow fresh air to reach the victim.