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Chapter 1 An Introduction To Microprocessor And Computer

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1 Chapter 1 An Introduction To Microprocessor And Computer
Microprocessors Chapter 1 An Introduction To Microprocessor And Computer prepared by Dr. Mohamed A. Shohla

2 Chapter Overview A Historical Background The Microprocessor Age
Pentium Evolution The Microprocessor-Based Personal computer System The Microprocessor

3 The Microprocessor Age-1
(a) 1970s Processors 4004 8008 8080 8086 8088 Introduced 71 72 74 78 79 Clock speeds 108 KHz 2 MHz 5–10 MHz 5–8 MHz Bus width 4 bits 8 bits 16 bits No. of transistors 2300 3500 6000 29000 Addressable memory 640 bytes 16 KB 64 KB 1 MB Virtual memory

4 The Microprocessor Age-2
(b) 1980s Processors 80286 386TMDX 386TMSX 486TM DX Introduced 82 85 88 89 Clock speeds 6-12MHz 16-33MHz 16-33 MHz 25-50 MHz Bus width 16 bits 32 bits No. of transistors 134000 275000 1.2 million Addressable memory 16 megabytes 4 gigabytes Virtual memory 1 gigabyte 64 terabytes

5 The Microprocessor Age-3
(c) 1990s Processors 486TMSX Pentium Pentium II Introduced 91 93 95 97 Clock speeds MHz 60-166MHz MHz MHz Bus width 32 bits 64 bits No. of transistors 1.2 million 3.1 million 5.5 million 7.5 million Addressable memory 4 gigabytes 64 gigabytes Virtual memory 64 terabyte 64 terabytes 64terabytes

6 The Microprocessor Age-4
(d) Recent Processors Pentium III Pentium 4 Introduced 99 11/2000 Clock speeds MHz GHz Bus width 64 bits No. of transistors 95 million 42 million Addressable memory 64 gigabytes Virtual memory 64 terabytes

7 The Pentium Evaluation
(1971) First 4-bit, 4k x 4 Memory, 45 Inst., 50 KIPS (1973) 8-bit, 16 KB Memory, 48 Inst. (1975) First 8-bit general purpose processor, 64 KB Memory, TTL , 500 KIPS (1977) Last 8-bit general purpose processor, Internal clock 8088 / 8086 (1978) First 16-bit processor, 1 MB Memory, 2.5 MIPS, 4-6 Byte fetch queue (1983) Last 16-bit processor, 16 MB Memory, 4 MIPS

8 The Pentium Evaluation
(1986) First 32-bit microprocessor, 32-bit address and data bus, 4GB Memory, Multitask (1989) Package (proc. + coproc + 8KB cache), pipelining Pentium (1993) 16 KB cache (8 KB Inst. cache + 8 KB Data cache), 64-bit data bus, 2 Execution Unit, Superscalar - Pentium Pro (95) 16 KB L1 cache, 256 KB L2 cache, 3 Execution Unit, More Superscalar - Pentium II (1997) On-board 32 KB L1 cache, 512 KB L2 cache, MMX technology

9 The Pentium Evaluation
- Pentium III (99) Additional FP instructions to support 3D graphics. - Pentium IV (2001) Additional FP and other enhancements for multimedia. Itanium This new generation of Intel processor makes use of a 64-bit organization with the IA-64 architecture.

10 Compare between the 80486 through Pentium 4 microprocessor.

11 The block diagram of a computer system.

12 The purpose of the microprocessor in a microprocessor-based computer system
At the heart of the microprocessor-based computer system is the microprocessor integrated cir­cuit. The microprocessor, sometimes referred to as the CPU (central processing unit), is the con­trolling element in a computer system. The microprocessor controls memory and I/O through a series of connections called buses. The microprocessor performs three main tasks for the computer system: data transfer between itself and the memory or I/O systems. simple arithmetic and logic operations. program flow via simple decisions. Albeit these are simple tasks, but through them, the microprocessor performs virtually any series of operations or tasks.

13 The three buses found in all computer systems.
A bus is a common group of wires that interconnect components in a computer system. The buses that interconnect the sections of a computer system transfer address, data, and control information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O systems. The address bus requests a memory location from the memory or an I/O location from the I/O devices. If I/O is addressed, the address bus contains a 16-bit I/O address from 0000H through FFFFH. The data bus transfers information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O address space. Data transfers vary in size, from 8 bits wide to 64 bits wide in various members of the Intel microprocessor family. The control bus contains lines that select the memory or I/O and cause them to perform a read or write operation.

14 Block diagram of a computer system showing address, data, and control bus.

15 The microprocessor bus and memory sizes
Data Bus Address Bus Memory Size 8086 16 20 1M 8088 8 80186 80188 80286 24 16M 80386 32 4G 80486 Pentium Pro 64 36 64G Pentium II Pentium II, III, 4

16 The physical memory systems of the 8086 through 80486

17 The physical memory systems of the Pentium II through Pentium IV

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