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Circulatory system, respiratory system and Aquatic systems

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Presentation on theme: "Circulatory system, respiratory system and Aquatic systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Circulatory system, respiratory system and Aquatic systems
Biological Pressure

2 Biological Pressures Bladder pressure
Hydrocephalus: Cerebrospinal pressure Glaucoma: Pressure in the eye Heart burn: Pressure in the gastrointestinal cavity

3 BLOOD PRESSURE The silent killer!!!!

4 The Blood Vessels and the Cardiovascular System
Figure 15-1: Functional model of the cardiovascular system

5 Blood Pressure (BP): Measurements
Systolic over diastolic About 120/80 mmHg Sphygmomanometer "Estimation of pressure" Korotkoff sounds

6 Blood Pressure (BP): Measurements
Figure 15-7: Measurement of arterial blood pressure

7 More Blood Pressures: Pulse and Mean Arterial Pressures
Figure 15-5: Pressure throughout the systemic circulation

8 Pressure Respiratory Respiration involves 3 processes
Ventilation/ breathing- bulk movement of air into and out of lungs Gas exchange between air in lungs and blood Gas exchange between blood and tissues



11 Lungs Alveoli- small air sacs
So numerous that the walls are little more than a succession of alveoli Alveolar ducts end into alveolar sacs- chambers connected to about 3 alveoli 300 million alveoli in each lung NO NEED TO SHAKE!!!


13 Pleural Cavities Lungs are in thoracic cavity
Lungs are surrounded by pleural cavity Cavity lined with serous membrane called pleura- 2 parts Parietal pleura- thorax, diaphragm, mediast. Visceral pleura- covers surface of lung Pleural cavity- between pleurae, filled with pleural fluid, lubricate and stick pleurae together

14 Ventillation 2 phases of ventilation Inspiration- inhalation
Expiration- exhalation Due to changes in thoracic volume- changes in air pressure in lung

15 Changing Thoracic Volume
Muscles of inspiration- diaphragm, external intercostals, others Diaphragm- dome shaped muscle separating thoracic cavity from abdominal Muscles of expiration- internal intercostals, abdominals


17 Pressure Changes Flow of air is governed by 2 principals
Changes in volume= changes in pressure Air flows from high to low pressure- greater the difference, the faster the flow



20 Lung Recoil SA During quiet expiration- recoil of lungs and thoracic wall Lung recoil- due to elastic fibers and surface tension of fluid in alveoli Two things prevent lung collapse Surfactant Pressure in pleural cavity

21 Surfactant Mixture of lipoproteins produced by epithelium
Forms a thin layer inside lungs Reduces surface tension Reduces tendency of lungs to collapse

22 Pressure There are three important pressure in respect to breathing:
atmospheric pressure-  the pressure of the air around us.  At sea level the atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg, at higher altitudes the pressure is lower.   intrapleural pressure-  the pressure within the potential pleural space between the parietal and visceral pleura.  Intrapleural pressure is always slightly below atmospheric pressure.  This is called negative pressure because the elastic lungs are always tending to collapse and pull the visceral pleura away from the parietal pleura.  The serous fluid, however, prevents separation of the pleural membranes. intrapulmonic pressure-  the pressure within the bronchial tree and alveoli.  This pressure fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during each cycle of breathing.

23 Gas Exchange – partial pressure
Diffusion of gases between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries Does not occur in bronchioles, bronchi and trachea = dead space Diffusion is dependant upon the partial pressure of that gas Partial pressure is very similar in concept to concentration

24 Fig

25 Carbon dioxide Plays a vital role in pH balance
CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-

26 Chemical control Increase in pH = decrease in CO2 = decrease in ventilation = increase in CO2 = decrease in pH Decrease in pH = increase in CO2 = increase in ventilation = decrease in CO2 = increase in pH

27 Aquatic system Gas solubility CO2 higher solubility O2 low solubility
Temperature High temp – low solubility Low temperature – high solubility

28 Metabolic functions How can we measure indirectly the rate of photosynthesis? How can we indirectly measure the rate of respiration?

29 Aquatic System Photosynthesis and Respiration
Plants – higher rate of photosynthesis high concentration of DO and low dissolved CO2 Plants – higher rate of photosynthesis lower concentration of DO and low dissolved CO2 Global warming and partial pressures of gas

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