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Organization of the Body Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Presentation on theme: "Organization of the Body Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organization of the Body Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 The Human Body The structure of a part suits the function of a part oAnatomy – structure of a part oPhysiology – function of a part

3 Organization of Body Parts oLevels of Organization Chemical Cellular Tissue Organs Organ Systems Organism

4 Anatomical Terms Used to describe: oLocation of body parts oRegions of the body oImaginary planes by which the body can be sectioned

5 Anatomical Terms Anatomical position – common reference point for all anatomical terms

6 Anatomical Terms Directional Terms oAnterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal) oSuperior/Inferior oMedial/Lateral oProximal/Distal oSuperficial/Deep oCentral/Peripheral oIpsilateral/Contralateral


8 Anatomical Terms Regions of the Body oAxial portion – head, neck, and trunk oAppendicular portion – upper and lower limbs


10 Anatomical Terms Planes and Sections of the Body oSagittal (median) plane – divides body into right and left portions oFrontal (coronal) plane – divides body into anterior and posterior portions oTransverse (horizontal) plane – divides body into superior and inferior portions


12 Body Cavities and Membranes oPosterior (dorsal) Cranial cavity – contains the brain Vertebral canal – contains the spinal cord Meninges – membranous layers lining dorsal body cavity

13 Body Cavities and Membranes oAnterior (ventral) Thoracic cavity  Medial portion (mediastinum) – contains the heart, thymus gland, trachea, esophagus, and other structures  Right and left portions – contain the lungs

14 Body Cavities and Membranes oAnterior (ventral) Abdominopelvic cavity  Superior portion (abdominal cavity) – contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestines  Inferior portion (pelvic cavity) – contains the rectum, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, and the rest of the large intestine


16 Body Cavities and Membranes oParietal serous membrane – line walls of anterior body cavities Thoracic cavity  Parietal Pleura – lines thoracic cavity  Parietal pericardium – creates pericardial cavity Abdominopelvic cavity  Parietal peritoneum – lines the wall of the abdominal cavity

17 Body Cavities and Membranes oVisceral serous membrane – covers organs of the anterior body cavity Thoracic cavity  Visceral pleura – covers lung tissue  Visceral pericardium – covers heart Abdominopelvic cavity  Visceral peritoneum – covers many organs in abdominopelvic cavity


19 Body Cavities and Membranes oAbdominopelvic regions Nine regions Four quadrants


21 Organ Systems Support, Movement, and Protection oIntegumentary System oSkeletal System oMuscular System

22 Organ Systems Integration and Coordination oNervous System oEndocrine System

23 Organ Systems Maintenance of the Body oCardiovascular System oRespiratory System oDigestive System oUrinary System

24 Organ Systems Reproduction and Development oMale Reproductive System oFemale Reproductive System

25 Homeostasis Homeostasis is the relative constancy of the body’s internal environment oExternal conditions may change dramatically oInternal conditions stay within a narrow range oDynamic equilibrium – internal conditions are not absolutely constant oIllness results if internal conditions change to any great degree

26 Homeostasis oComponents of homeostatic mechanisms Sensor – detects a change in the internal environment Control center – activates the effector Effector – produces a response to the change

27 Homeostasis Negative Feedback oPrimary homeostatic mechanism oEffector reverses the change in the internal environment



30 Homeostasis Positive Feedback oEffector continues to stimulate the sensor so that a greater change in the internal environment occurs oHelps in completing a process that has a cutoff point Blood clotting Childbirth oCan be harmful


32 Homeostasis Homeostasis and Body Systems oAll body systems contribute towards maintaining homeostasis oDisease occurs when homeostasis fails Local disease – restricted to a specific part of the body Systemic disease – affects several organ systems or the entire body Acute diseases – occur suddenly and last a short time Chronic diseases – develop slowly and are long term

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