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The Sentence and Its Parts

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1 The Sentence and Its Parts
Chapter 1

2 Lesson 1 – Complete Subjects and Predicates
Mr. Morton Video Lesson 1 – Complete Subjects and Predicates

3 A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought.
Every complete sentence has two basic parts: a subject and a predicate. The complete subject includes all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about. The complete predicate includes the verb and all the words that complete the verb’s meaning.

4 To find the complete subject, ask who or what does something (or is something).
To find the complete predicate, ask what the subject does (or is).

5 Example: Some architects bring nature indoors.
Some architects is the complete subject because it answers who is doing something. bring nature indoors is the complete predicate because it is telling you what some architects do.

6 Let’s try it together Frank Lloyd Wright designed an unusual home in the Pennsylvania woods. The owners called the house Fallingwater. Sections of the house jut out over a waterfall. Its stone walls blend in with the natural surroundings.

7 More than 130,000 people visit the sight each year.
Tourists can see a very different house near Spring Green, Wisconsin. The architect Alex Jordan built House on the Rock on a column of sandstone. Its many rooms contain unique furnishings. An automated band plays music all day for the tourists. This odd house attracts half a million visitors a year.

8 Homework Workbook page 1 Workbook page 2 – part A only
You will have a quiz on Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4 on __________________________.

9 Lesson 2 – Simple Subjects

10 Let’s Review A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. A pronoun is a word that can be used in place of a noun.

11 The simple subject is the main word or words in the complete subject
The simple subject is the main word or words in the complete subject. Descriptive words are not part of the simple subject. The simple subject is going to be a noun or a pronoun. Example: An expectant seal builds a shelter in a snowdrift.

12 Let’s Try it Together Many animals need shelter from cold and predators. Lodges on islands often give beavers the best protection. These homes are built up form the bottom of the pond. Strong saplings are anchored in the mud. The sturdy rodents then pile debris into a mound.

13 Branches buried in the mud are food for the winter.
Their whole family lives together in the snug burrow. Their warm bodies keep the temperature comfortable. Predators can claw at the frozen lodge. The crafty beavers stay safe and warm inside.

14 Homework Workbook page 4 Workbook page 5
You will have a quiz on Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4 on __________________________.

15 Lesson 3 – Simple Predicates, or Verbs Lesson 4 – Verb phrases

16 The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or words in the complete predicate.
A verb is a word used to express an action, a condition, or a state of being. A linking verb tells what the subject is. An action verb tells what the subject does even when the action cannot be seen. Example: Prairie pioneers lived in sod houses.

17 A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs.
A main verb can stand by itself as the single predicate of a sentence. One or more helping verbs help the main verb express action or show time. Example: It will have been programmed for all seasons.

18 Let’s Try it Together Directions: Underline the simple predicate, or verb, in each sentence. My great-grandparents lived in a sod house, or “soddy,” on the Kansas prairie. They traveled west from their home in Tennessee. The men used nearly an acre of sod for the house. The home had only two windows and one door. My family built their soddy in the side of a hill.

19 Let’s Try it Together Directions: Underline the verb phrase in each sentence below. Be sure to include all the helping verbs. The first “smart house” was developed in the early 1980s. Its appliances could communicate with each other. Suppose you were running the vacuum cleaner. The noise might keep you from hearing the phone. In that situation the house would stop the vacuum cleaner automatically.

20 Homework Workbook page 7 Workbook page 10
You will have a quiz on Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4 on _________________________.

21 Lesson 5 – Compound Sentence parts

22 Sentences can have compound subjects and compound verbs.
A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects that share the same verb. The subjects are joined by a conjunction, or a connecting word, such as and, or, or but. Examples: Salyut 1 and Skylab were the first space stations. American astronauts or Russian cosmonauts lived aboard the stations.

23 A compound verb is made up of tow or more verbs that have the same subject.
The verbs are joined by a conjunction such as and, or, or but. Examples: The Skylab crew worked and slept in close quarters. They worked hard but slept little.

24 Let’s Try it Together Space stations and orbiting platforms are our first step away from Earth. In the future, we may design and build outer-space cities. Several nations or international groups could pool their resources. They could create and manage a colony on the moon. Minerals and other raw materials would be shipped to colonies in space.

25 We already design and plan model cities.
In one design, two huge cylinders and their solar panels form the main body of the space city. The cylinders rotate and create an artificial gravity. Special greenhouses shelter and sustain the city’s food. These cities or other space colonies could bring us closer to the stars!

26 Homework Workbook page 13
You will have a quiz on Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4 on _________________________. You will have a test on Chapter 1 on ________________________________.

27 Lesson 7 – Subjects in unusual order

28 Questions In a question, the subject usually comes after the verb or between parts of the verb phrase. Example: Is she ready? Does the weather look good for the game?

29 To find the subject, turn the question into a statement
To find the subject, turn the question into a statement. Then ask who or what is doing something. Are you staying home? You are staying home. (Who is staying? You)

30 Commands The subject of a command, or imperative sentence, is usually you. Often, you doesn’t appear in the sentence because it’s implied or understood. (You) Meet us at the concession stand. (You) Bring money for snacks!

31 Inverted Sentences In an inverted sentence, the subject comes after the verb. Writers use inverted sentences to emphasize particular words or ideas.

32 Inverted Subjects and Verbs
Normal: The first batter walked up to the plate. Inverted: Up to the plate walked the first batter. Do you judge me by my size? Inverted Judge me by my size, do you? Think of Yoda when you’re thinking about inverted subjects and verbs.

33 Sentences Beginning with Here or There
In some sentences beginning with here or there, subjects follow verbs. To find the subject in such a sentence, look for the verb and ask the question who or what. Find the subject by looking at the words that follow the verb. Example: Here comes your all-state championship team.

34 Let’s Try it Together There are some benefits to games at the home stadium. In the bleachers sit all your fans. There are fewer hostile fans from the other team. Is travel time shorter to and from the game? On the field can be seen special landscaping.

35 Will the umpires give the home team a break?
Does the team usually play better on its own field? Look at the team’s record for the season. There are more wins at home. Plan more home games for next year.

36 Homework Workbook page 19 Workbook page 20 – Part A only.
You will have a test on Chapter 1, Lessons 1 – 5, 7, and 10 on __________________________________.

37 Lesson 10 – Fragments and Run-ons

38 Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is a part of a sentence that is written as if it were a complete sentence. A sentence fragment is missing a subject, a predicate, or both. Example: The Rungus people in Malaysia. (missing a predicate) Build traditional homes called longhouses. (missing a subject) On top of stilts away from flood waters. (missing both)

39 To make a complete sentence, add a subject, a predicate, or both.
The Rungus people live in Malayisa. They build traditional homes called longhouses. These homes often are constructed on top of stilts, away from flood waters.

40 Run-On Sentences A run-on sentence is two or more sentences written as though they were a single sentence. When combining two sentences with a conjunction (and, but, or, for), use a comma before the conjunction.

41 RUN-ON The longhouse roof is made of palm leaves, the walls are made of tree bark. REVISION The longhouse roof is made of palm leaves. The walls are made of tree bark. The longhouse roof is made of palm leaves, and the walls are made of tree bark.

42 Let’s Try it Together The Maya live in Mexico.
Directions: Identify each of the following sentences as a fragment, a run-on, or a complete sentence. The Maya live in Mexico. Their traditional homes. Have been much the same for centuries. Some were made of stucco or stone. Modern building materials.

43 Today Mayan houses have electricity and telephones other things haven’t changed.
The Maya now use such materials as cinder blocks and cement for walls. They build roofs from corrugated metal they also use tarpaper. The tombstones in some Mayan cemeteries. Are shaped like little houses.

44 Homework Workbook page 28 Workbook page 29 – Part A only
You will have a test on Chapter 1, Lessons 1 – 5, 7, and 10 on __________________________________.

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