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Unit 1 Foundations of Government Vocabulary:

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1 Unit 1 Foundations of Government Vocabulary:

2 Sovereignty- ultimate, supreme power in a state.
Legitimacy- right and proper authority of government Totalitarian-form of government with absolute control over everything.

3 Anarchy-a state of lawlessness
Oligarchy-rule by a few small groups of people, usually military or economic elite Monarchy-form of government exercised by a single ruler, such as king or queen, who claims absolute authority by divine or hereditary rights

4 Divine Right-A monarch rules by sanction or approval of God
Divine Right-A monarch rules by sanction or approval of God. Power comes from God to the king, who has the right to do whatever he wants. Majority Rule-decisions made by the majority Democracy-rule by the people Republic-an indirect form of democracy in which citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf

5 Constitutional Monarchy-form of government in which there is a contractual agreement (or constitution) between a monarch and the people Constitution- a plan for government (establishes 1. structure of gov’t 2. common beliefs 3. it is an incomplete guide) Unitary System- gives all key power to the national or central government

6 John Locke-Enlightenment thinker who believed government had a duty to protects its citizens’ life, liberty, and property. Influenced Declaration of Independence. Baron de Montesquieu- Famous for the theory of Separation of Powers, which has been implemented in many constitutions throughout the world, Montesquieu influenced the Constitution. Jean-Jacques Rousseau-Wrote Social Contract. According to Rousseau, by joining together into civil society through the social contract, individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. Influenced Declaration of Independence and Constitution.

7 Voltaire-Enlightenment thinker famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil rights and liberties, including freedom of religion, speech, and free trade. Influenced Bill of Rights. Niccolo Machiavelli- Machiavelli’s name is synonymous with tough and dirty politics. Author of The Prince. One of history’s first political scientists.

8 Government- the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions State- a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government Power-the government’s authority to make and enforce policies and laws

9 Policy-any decision made by government in pursuit of a particular goal
Politics-the process by which government makes and carries out decisions Natural Law-a system of rules derived from the natural world. The Natural World provides a just and rational order to all things in the world.

10 Social Contract Theory-a theory of society in which government is a contract between government and the governed to provide protection and support for the people. Federal System- divides powers of government between national state and local levels Confederal System- confederacy- a loose union of independent states Dictatorship-form of government in which one person has claimed power and the right to rule by force

11 Direct Democracy-a form of government in which citizens meet regularly to discuss and vote on laws
Parliamentary System-a form of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature






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