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Containing Communism & Berlin crisis

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Presentation on theme: "Containing Communism & Berlin crisis"— Presentation transcript:

1 Containing Communism & Berlin crisis
Early cold war Containing Communism & Berlin crisis

2 Preview of Events March 1947 June 1948 April 1949 Truman Doctrine
Berlin Airlift NATO forms

3 Containing communism Containment Policy The Berlin Crisis
Long Telegram Truman’s Containment Policy Crisis in Iran Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan The Berlin Crisis West Germany founded Berlin Airlift NATO

4 Long Telegram US was frustrated with Soviet’s refusal to cooperate
Review: #5 Long Telegram US was frustrated with Soviet’s refusal to cooperate February 22, 1946 Moscow’s diplomat George Kennan sends a “long telegram” to the Department of State

5 Long Telegram Contents
Review: #5 Long Telegram Contents 5,540 word cable message Explained Soviet Union’s sense of insecurity and fear of the west Argued that it was impossible to reach settlement with Soviet Union Proposed: Soviets had major economic and political weaknesses IF U.S. could keep Soviets from expanding their power, it would be a matter of time until Soviet system would fall a part  Communism could be beaten without a war

6 Truman’s Containment Policy
Long Telegram = basic American policy throughout the Cold War = Truman’s Containment Policy Truman’s Containment Policy = keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic, and military actions

7 Crisis in Iran During WWII – Iran signed agreement where Soviet troops allowed in northern Iran to protect supply line of oil from possible German attack Treaty was suppose to last for 6 months After war, Soviets did not withdraw troops Stalin demanded access to oil supply Soviets helped local Communists to establish a separate gov’t  Soviets were pushing into Middle East

8 Crisis in Iran cont. Secretary of State James Byrnes sent a strong message to Moscow - demanding Soviet troops to withdraw During this time USS Missouri battleship entered from eastern Mediterranean Pressure worked and Soviet forces withdrew Did not back out empty handed – was promised a joint Soviet-Iranian oil company

9 Origins of the Truman Doctrine
Review: #12 Origins of the Truman Doctrine Stalin was frustrated about the lost of Iranian oil Turned to Turkey Straits of Dardanelles in Turkey = a vital route from Soviet Black Sea ports to the Mediterranean August 1946 – Stalin demanded joint control of the Dardanelles Truman advised by Dean Acheson to make a show of force Truman ordered aircraft carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt to join the Missouri in protecting Turkey and the Mediterranean

10 Origins of Truman Doctrine cont.
Review: #12 Origins of Truman Doctrine cont. Meanwhile... (still in August 1946) Great Britain was aiding Greece against Greek Communists who launched a guerrilla war against the Greek government For 6 months – British troops helped Greeks fight the guerrillas Fight strained Britain’s economy – which was still weak from WWII February 1947 – Britain informed United States that could no longer afford to help Greece

11 Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 His speech outlined the Truman Doctrine
Review: #12 Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 Truman went before Congress to ask for $400 million to fight Communist aggression in Greece and Turkey His speech outlined the Truman Doctrine Goal was to aid “free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”

12 Review: #12 Truman doctrine Immediate goals = to stabilize the Greek government and ease Soviet demands in Turkey Long run goals = pledged that the United States would fight communism worldwide

13 Marshall Plan Review: #6, 37 Postwar Western Europe = huge economic problems (starvation, political chaos) June 1947 – Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program Aka The Marshall Plan European nations receive American aid to rebuild economies Pumped billions of dollars worth of supplies, machinery, and food into Western Europe Recovery of Western Europe’s economy would deter the idea of communism  instead, opened up new markets for trade

14 Truman OK’s Marshall Plan
Truman saw that the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine were “Two halves of the same walnut” Both were essential for containment Soviets and satellite nations rejected Marshall Plan  instead Soviets developed their own economic program Led to a further separated Europe

15 The Berlin Crisis Truman still believed that Western Europe’s prosperity depended on Germany’s recovery Soviets still wanted heavy reparations Arguments over Germany put U.S. and Soviet Union at brink of war

16 West Germany founded Allies merge zones in Germany and Berlin
Allow Germans to have own government – were afraid that Soviet Union was trying to undermine Germany’s economy West Berlin = merged into new German republic West Germany = Federal Republic of Germany Economy was completely separate from the Soviet zone Not allowed to have military But was mostly independent Soviet zone = aka East Germany

17 Berlin Blockade Soviets believed won’t get reparations because of formation of West Germany June 1948 Soviet troops cut all road and rail traffic to West Berlin Truman’s response = send long range bombers with atomic weapons General Lucius Clay =“If we mean to hold Europe against communism, then we must not budge” Warned that if Berlin fell, West Germany would be next

18 Review: #2 Berlin Airlift Problem = keep west Berlin alive without provoking war with Soviets Answer = Truman ordered Berlin Airlift Began June 1948 – lasted 11 months Cargo planes supplied Berliners with food, medicine, and coal Over 2 million tons of supplies May 12, 1949 = Stalin lifted the blockade Berlin Airlift = symbol of American determination to stand by the divided city

19 Review: #8 NATO Berlin blockade convinced many Americans that Soviets were on a conquest American public and Congress began to support a military alliance with Western Europe April 1949 – an agreement was reached to create the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Aka NATO

20 NATO A mutual defense alliance Included 12 countries
Review: #8 NATO A mutual defense alliance Included 12 countries NATO members agreed to come to the aid of any member who was attacked 1st time in its history – US had committed itself to maintain peace in Europe 6 years later – United States and its allies decided to allow West Germany to rearm and join NATO Soviet leaders were alarmed by this decision In response – organized a military alliance in Eastern Europe = Warsaw Pact

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