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© Janice Regan, CMPT 128, 2007-2012 CMPT 371 Data Communications and Networking Socket Programming 0.

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Presentation on theme: "© Janice Regan, CMPT 128, 2007-2012 CMPT 371 Data Communications and Networking Socket Programming 0."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Janice Regan, CMPT 128, 2007-2012 CMPT 371 Data Communications and Networking Socket Programming 0

2 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 1 The socket interface  The socket interface is used in application programs to specify the interface between the application program and the transport layer protocol software (TCP, UDP)  The form of the interface (API) is not specified in the protocol, it may vary for different OS’s and between different computer languages.  The socket interface discussed here is the Python interface which is based on the BSD UNIX socket  The Python interface is similar to the BSD UNIX C interface but easier to use.

3 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 2 IO: FILE vs. NETWORK  When reading or writing a file a file descriptor is used to specify the file referred to  A file is opened using a particular file descriptor, binding the file or device to that file descriptor  Data is read from and/or written to file  to read or write need at least three pieces of information  File descriptor  Buffer (holds data read from file or data being written to the file)  Number of bytes to read/write (or size of buffer)  File is closed

4 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 3 NETWORK IO  A socket is a communication endpoint, the socket descriptor is an integer describing a particular socket  A socket is not automatically bound to a particular IP or port  The application programmer can choose when to bind the socket to a IP and port, or to let the OS bind to a IP and port at runtime  Two sockets can be connected to form a connection  When a connection is made it is assigned a connection identifier  When sending or receiving data across a network connection we write or read to a connection identifier

5 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 4 IO: FILE vs. NETWORK  When reading or writing through a socket a connection descriptor is used to specify the particular connection  A socket is connected to another socket (communication endpoint) to create a connection  A created connection has a connection identifier  Data can then be transferred from one endpoint to the other. Once the sockets are connected the connection descriptor can be used like a file descriptor  When the data transfer is complete the connection is closed

6 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 5 Establish connection socket( ) connect( ) accept( ) listen( ) bind( ) socket( ) TCP server TCP client Connection establishment TCP 3-way handshake Well known port Blocks until connection from client

7 TCP server (Python) for socket import * serverPort = 1200 serverSocket = socket.socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM) serverSocket.bind((‘ ‘,serverPort)) serverSocket.listen(1) print ‘The server is ready to receive’ while 1; connectionSocket.addr = serverSocket.accept() sentence = connetionSocket.recv(1024) capitalizedSentence = sentence.upper() connectionSocket.send(capitalizedSentence) connection Socket.close() : Janice Regan © 2007-2013 6

8 TCP client (Python) from socket import * serverName = ‘servername’ serverPort = 1200 clientSocket = socket.socket( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM ) clientSocket.connect (serverName,serverPort) clientSocket.send (sentence) modifiedSentence = clientSocket.recv(1024) clientSocket.close; Janice Regan © 2007-2013 7

9 8 TCP Data Transfer: write( ) read( ) close( ) read( ) write( ) Process request close( ) Data (request) Data (reply) End of file notification TCP client TCP server

10 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 9 UDP Data Transfer sendto( ) recvfrom( ) bind( ) socket( ) sendto( ) socket( ) Data (request) Blocks until connection from client Process request recvfrom( ) UDP client Data (reply) close( )

11 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 10 The socket method: socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, PROTOCOL )  The family indicates the family of protocols that will use the socket (AF_INET for IPv4, AF_INET6 for IPv6)  The type indicates the particular type of transfer that will be used (SOCK_STREAM for TCP, SOCK_DATAGRAM for UDP, SOCK_RAW for raw data)  The protocol indicates the particular protocol to use (usually 0)

12 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 11 Creating a socket socketfd = socket.socket ( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM);  socket is the socket descriptor for the newly created IPv4 TCP socket  This socket is not yet associated with any communication endpoint (IP address, port pair)  The socket is an active socket (for use in active connection mode)  You can see all the possible values for protocol family, protocol type and protocol in the descriptions of the python interface available online

13 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 12 The bind function  The bind function associates the socket descriptor with a local (same host that the process doing the bind is running on) communication endpoint socketfd.bind( ‘ ‘, serverPort )  ‘ ‘ means all available interfaces, this means the server will accept requests regardless of which of its interfaces the requests arrive on

14 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 13 local communication endpoints  The local port and IP address of the host’s interface can be determined automatically within the sockets software at run time. If a port or IP address is not specified then:  An interface to the network will be specified for you (local IP address)  An available (ephemeral) port on the host will be chosen to associate with the endpoint  Normally servers bind to a specified port, clients allow the OS kernel to choose an interface (the one that can connect to the server) and an ephemeral port

15 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 14 Specifying Destination Address  In the connect function associates the socket descriptor with a destination address [(IP address, port) port pair specifying the destination connection endpoint]  For TCP this function initiates the three way handshake.  A client normally requests a connection using the connect function. A server normally waits for that connect request.  A socket can be connected regardless of whether it has been bound to a local address. If no call has been made to bind the OS kernel will assign the local ephemeral port and select a local IP address

16 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 15 The connect function socketfd.connect( servername, serverport)  The socket address specifies the IP address and port number of the destination connection endpoint

17 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 16 Waiting for a connection  The listen function converts an unconnected socket into a passive socket.  When created using socket the socket is an active socket  Listen is usually used by a server process.  The OS kernel queues requests for connection to the passive socket.

18 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 17 The listen function socketfd.listen( backlog )  The backlog indicates the maximum number of connections the kernel (OS) should queue for this socket.

19 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 18 Closing a connection  The close functions default results are  mark the socket with socket descriptor sockfd as closed  For a TCP connection, start the three way handshake to terminate the connection by sending a FIN  Prevents further use of the socket by the application  Allows any previously queued data to be sent before closing the connection socket.close( )

20 Janice Regan © 2007-2013 19 The socket interface  We have discussed the basics of the socket interface when dealing with a simple iterative server and clients  The server will queue connect requests from different clients and deal with them one by one  For short requests like sending a single packet this can work well  For longer requests that take significant processing time this is not efficient, we would like the server to be able to deal with the requests simultaneously  The solution is to use a concurrent server, that makes a copy of itself or child to deal with each client

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