Presentation on theme: "All roads lead to heaven All the sincere will be saved"— Presentation transcript:
1 All roads lead to heaven All the sincere will be saved Religious Pluralism…is the belief that:All religions are trueAll roads lead to heavenAll the sincere will be saved
2 On the Roads Again“I believe all roads lead to the same place. We’re taking different ways to get there, but we all end up in the same place. It’s kind of like Kinky Friedman’s statement, ‘May the God of your choice bless you.’ That’s the main thoughts that I have about life” (Time 8/7/06, p. 6).
3 Oprah Winfrey’s Pluralism I believe that there are many paths to God…. I certainly don’t believe that there is only one way…. There couldn’t possibly be just one way to God …. I am a Christian who believes that there are certainly many more paths to God other than Christianity” (the Oprah Winfrey Show 1/3/94).
4 Eckhart Tolle: All Religions are the Same “…Due [in part] to an influx of the ancient Eastern wisdom teachings, a growing number of followers of traditional religions are able to let go of identification with form, dogma, and rigid belief systems and discover the original depth that is hidden within their own spiritual tradition at the same time as they discover the depth within themselves…” (A New Earth, 18).
5 Bishop George Conger“Christians understand that Jesus is the route to God. That is not to say that Muslims, or Sikhs, or Jains come to God in radically different ways. They come to God through human experience of the divine. But to assume that God could not act in other ways is, I think, to put God in an awfully small box” (Church of England Newspaper, 4/17/09).
6 The Six Blind Hindus & The Elephant 1 - ear = big leaf2- tusk = spear3-side = wall4-tail = rope5-leg = tree trunk6-snout = snakeSame Reality Different Interpretations
7 FAN WALL SPEAR ROPE SNAKE TREE Six Blind MenFANWALLSPEARROPESNAKETREE
8 JUDAISM HINDUISM ISLAM TAOISM CHRISTIANITY BUDDHISM RELIGIONSJUDAISMHINDUISMISLAMTAOISMCHRISTIANITYBUDDHISM
9 Outline I. What is truth? II. Can all religions be true? III. Is there only one way?
12 What is Truth? Truth is what: Corresponds to the facts
13 What is Truth? Truth is what: Corresponds to the facts Matches its object
14 What is Truth? Truth is what: Corresponds to the facts Matches its object Tells it like it is
15 A true statement matches its object “This object is a table.”
16 What is False? False is what does not: -Correspond to the facts Match its object -Tell it like it is
17 The Opposite of True is False (The Law of Non-Contradiction)The Law of Noncontradiction =First Principle of All KnowledgeIt Is As Elementary As:In / Out - OppositesBig / Small - OppositesUp / Down - OppositesBack / Forth- OppositesTrue / False- OppositesTwo Examples:Call PEF - meet student w/ problem!Princeton Senior - Philosophy MajorThe law is false - No you believe it’s true!Krakov Professor (Anxious!!!)Very narrow minded - Western logic = Aristotelianlimited - You need to learn about Eastern logicOkay explain it to me!Opposite ideas cannot both be trueat the same time and in the same sense.The Earth is RoundThe Earth is NOT Round
18 The Opposite of True is False Sure-Fire Way to Convince a Skeptic!“Anyone who denies the law of non-contradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned.”(Avicenna, Great Muslim Philosopher)
19 Self-Defeating Claims Aim at Something Else: Hit Yourself
20 Answering Objections to Objective Truth: Apply the claim to itself! Examples . . .
21 A Self-Defeating Statement “I can’t speak a word in English.”“Didn’t he say that in English?”
22 A Self-Defeating Statement “Truth is not telling like it is!”“Isn’t that telling it like it is?”
23 A Self-Defeating Statement “Opposites can both be true.”“Is the opposite of that true?”
24 A Self-Defeating Statement “There is no truth.”“Is that true?”
25 A Self-Defeating Statement “You can’t know truth.”“How do you know that is true?”
26 A Self-Defeating Statement “There is no absolute truth!”“Is that absolutely true?”
27 A Self-Defeating Statement “It’s true for you but not for me!”“Is that just true for you but not for me?”
28 A Self-Defeating Statement “Nothing is true for everyone!”“Is that true for everyone?”
29 A Self-Defeating Statement “No one knows the truth!”“Then how do you know that is true?”
30 A Self-Defeating Statement “Truth about God isn’t objective!”“Is that an objective truth about God ?”
31 The Truth About TruthAll truth claims are absolute, narrow and exclusive. (Even the claim that “Every religion is true” excludes its opposite.)
32 The Truth About Truth2. Truth is discovered, not invented. It exists independently of anyone’s knowledge of it (Gravity existed prior to Newton).
33 The Truth About Truth3. Beliefs can not change a fact, no matter how sincerely they are held. (I can sincerely believe the world is flat but that only makes me sincerely wrong.)
34 The Truth About Truth3. Beliefs can not change a fact, no matter how sincerely they are held. (I can sincerely believe the world is flat but that only makes me sincerely wrong.)4. Truth is trans-cultural (2+2=4 here, there, and everywhere).
35 The Truth About Truth5. Being raised in a given culture doesn’t make their beliefs true.
36 The Truth About Truth5. Being raised in a given culture doesn’t make their beliefs true.a) Being raised a Nazi doesn’t make Nazism true.
37 The Truth About Truth5. Being raised in a given culture doesn’t make their beliefs true.a) Being raised a Nazi doesn’t make Nazism true.b) Being raised a racist does make racism true.
38 The Truth About Truth5. Being raised in a given culture doesn’t make their beliefs true.a) Being raised a Nazi doesn’t make Nazism true.b) Being raised a racist does make racism true.c) Being raised a bigot does not make bigotry true.
39 The Truth About Truth 6. One’s Attitude Doesn’t Change the Truth a) A bad attitude about truth does not make it an error.b) A good attitude about error does not make it true.
40 The Truth About Truth 7. Objective Truth Can’t be Denied The denial of objective truth makes a claim to be an objective truth.The claim that “There is no objective truth” is an objective truth claim.
41 Summary The Truth About Truth 1. Contrary beliefs are possible, but contrary truths are not possible.2. You can believe everything is true, but everything can’t be true.3. Objective truth can’t be denied without being affirmed.
42 In Banking Truth is Absolute “It doesn’t matter what the Bank says is in my account, but it is how much I feel should be there that counts.”
43 Medicine Demands Absolute Truth “It doesn’t matter whether the Doctor gives you poison or not as long as you feel good about it”!
44 Legal Oath Demands Absolute Truth “I swear to tell the expedient, the whole expedient, and nothing but the expedient, so help me future experience”!
45 Truth is Absolute in Religion The claim that “Religious truth is subjective” is not a subjective truth claim about religion.The claim that “Religious truth is not objective” claims to be an objective truth about religion.
46 OutlineWhat is truth?Can all religions be true?
47 The Six Blind Hindus & The Elephant 1 - ear = big leaf2- tusk = spear3-side = wall4-tail = rope5-leg = tree trunk6-snout = snakeSame Reality Different Interpretations
48 JUDAISM HINDUISM ISLAM TAOISM MORMONISM BUDDHISM ARE ALL RELIGIONS TRUE?JUDAISMHINDUISMISLAMTAOISMMORMONISMBUDDHISM
49 Except the one with his eyes open to the truth! No! They are All WrongExcept the one with his eyes open to the truth!The truth is absolute: This is an elephant!
50 OutlineI. What is truth?II. Can all religions be true?
51 All Religions Can’t Be True: Because They Teach Opposites Islam with ChristianityLet’s contrast:
52 ISLAM CHRISTIANITY GOD: Only one person GOD: 3 persons in one God HUMANITY: Good by natureHUMANITY: Sinful by natureJESUS: Merely a man, not God.JESUS: More than a man; He was also God.DEATH OF CHRIST: He didn’t die or rise againDEATH OF CHRIST: He died and rose again in same bodyBIBLE: CorruptedBIBLE: Not corruptedSALVATION: By faith plus works when good deeds outweigh bad onesSALVATION: Not by works but is a free gift of God for all who believe
53 But Don’t They Have Things in Common? Yes. So Do a Counterfeit and a Genuine $20 Bill.
54 But Don’t They Have Things in Common? Yes. So Do a Counterfeit and a Genuine $20 Bill.1) Both are paper.
55 But Don’t They Have Things in Common? Yes. So Do a Counterfeit and a Genuine $20 Bill.1) Both are paper.2) Both are rectangular.
56 But Don’t They Have Things in Common? Yes. So Do a Counterfeit and a Genuine $20 Bill.1) Both are paper.2) Both are rectangular.3) Both have a “20” on them.
57 But Don’t They Have Things in Common? Yes. So Do a Counterfeit and a Genuine $20 Bill.1) Both are paper.2) Both are rectangular.3) Both have a “20” on them.But one is a counterfeit!
58 How to Tell a Counterfeit. Not by superficial similarities How to Tell a Counterfeit Not by superficial similarities But by crucial differences
59 Can All Religions Be True? SummaryCan All Religions Be True?Can all religions be true: No, they teach opposites! And opposites can’t both be true.Can one religion be true: Yes, if we take off our blinders and see which religion corresponds to reality.Do other religions have some truth? Yes, but since the opposite of true is false, if one religion’s claims are true, then all opposing claims in other religions are false.
60 Outline I. What is truth? II. Can all religions be true? III. Is there only one way?
62 Is There Only One Way? Christianity says “yes” because: Jesus Claimed ItJesus Proved It
63 Jesus Claimed ItJohn 14:6 “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”John 10:1,9 “I tell you the truth, the man who does not enter the sheep pen by the gate, but climbs in by some other way, is a thief and a robber…. I am the gate; whoever enters through me will be saved.”
64 His Disciples Affirmed It Acts 4:12 “Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved.”1Tim 2:5 “For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus….”
65 Jesus Proved It By: No other religious leader did this! His Fulfillment of PropheciesHis Sinless and Miraculous LifeHis Death and ResurrectionNo other religious leader did this!
66 Comparing Leaders: According to Islam and the Qur’an MUHAMMADNot Virgin BornJESUSVirgin BornNot SinlessSinlessNot MessiahCalled MessiahNo MiraclesDid MiraclesNot Word of GodCalled Word of GodBody in GraveBody in Heaven
67 Comparing Great Religious Leaders Characteristic Jesus Muhammed Buddha ConfuciusVirgin Born Yes No No NoSinless Yes No No NoProphecy Yes No No NoDid Miracles Yes No No NoResurrection Yes No No NoEthic Highest Not Not NotFollowing Greatest Not Not Not
69 Human Race Ethnic Group Tribe Dynasty How Where When Woman, Gen 3:15 Abraham, Gen 12:1TribeJudah, Gen 49:10DynastyDavid, 2 Sam 7:12HowVirgin, Isa 7:14WhereBethlehem, Mic 5:2When33 A.D., Dan 9:24
70 Joseph Smith’s False Prophecies 1832--Temple to be built in Missouri before the living will die.1835--Coming of the Lord within 56 years (by 1891).1887--Copyright of Book of Mormon would be sold in Canada by Smith’s reps.
71 False Prophecies of the Jehovah’s Witnesses End of the Age will be:17991874191419251975All were wrong!
72 What About Psychic Predictions? They are often vagueThey are usually wrongWhen right, they are:Reading trendsEmploying trickeryReading personalitiesUsing inside informationUsing power of suggestion
73 THE PSYCHICS SCORE CARD 1976--THE PEOPLE'S ALMANAC: 66 OF 72 WRONG (92%)1993--THEY MISSED EVERY MAJOR UNEXPECTED STORY:MICHAEL JORDAN'S RETIREMENTMIDWEST FLOODISRAEL-PLO PEACE TREATYWHAT ABOUT THE PREDICTIONS OF NOSTRADAMUS?HE NEVER PREDICTED HITLER (A PERSON) BUT “HISTER” (A PLACE)HE NEVER PREDICTED A SPECIFIC CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKEHE NEVER MENTIONED CALIFORNIA BY NAMEHE NEVER GAVE A YEAR FOR ITIT WAS ONLY A BIG QUAKE FAR AWAY ON SOME MAY 10thHE WAS OFTEN WRONG IN HIS ALMANAC PREDICTIONSMOST OF HIS PREDCTIONS WERE VAGUE
74 1994: FAILED PSYCHIC PREDICTIONS QUEEN OF ENGLAND WOULD ABDICATEKATHIE LEE GIFFORD WOULD REPLACE JAY LENOCINDY CRAWFORD WOULD HAVE TRIPLETSHILLARY CLINTON WOULD PLEAD GUILTY OF SHOPLIFTINGCHARLES MANSON WOULD GET A SEX-CHANGE OPERATIONWHITNEY HOUSTON WOULD MARRY MIKE TYSONAN AFRICAN PLANT WOULD CURE AIDSVOLCANIC ACTION WOULD MAKE A LAND BRIDGE TO CUBAMADONNA WOULD MARRY BOY GEORGESEARS TOWER WOULD LEAN LIKE TOWER OF PISANATIONAL LOTTERY WOULD CUT TAXES IN HALFTEEN WOULD BUILD AND DETONATE NUCLEAR BOMB IN SCMADONNA WILL MARRY A SHEIK AND BECOME A HOUSE WIFE
75 Jesus Proved It By: His Fulfillment of Prophecies His Sinless and Miraculous Life
77 A. Jesus said: “Which of you convicts me of sin?” (Jn. 8:46). B. Those Who Knew Him Best Said:“For we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are—yet was without sin” (Heb. 4:15).“Christ [is] a lamb without blemish or defect” (1 Peter 1:19).“He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth” (1 Peter 2:22).“For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous…” (1 Peter 3:18).“He is righteous” (1 Jn. 2:29).“He is pure” (1 Jn. 3:3).“God made him who had no sin to be sin for us….” (2 Cor. 5:21).
78 C. His Enemies and Others Said: Judas: “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood” (Mt. 27:4).Pilate: “I am innocent of the blood of this just person” (Mt. 27:24).Pilate’s Wife: “Have nothing to do with that just man…” (Mat. 27:19).A Centurion: “Certainly this was a righteous man” (Lk. 23:47).A Centurion: “Truly this was the Son of God!” (Mt. 27:54).The Thief on the Cross: “This man has done nothing wrong” (Lk. 23:41).The Herodians: “Teacher, we know that you are true, and teach the way of God in truth: nor do you care about anyone, for you do not regard the person of men” (Mt. 22:16).
79 Jesus Proved It By Miracles: Nicodemus: “Rabbi, we know you are teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that you do unless God is with him” (John. 3:2).Peter: “Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs, which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves know…” (Acts 2:22).
80 Jesus Proved It By Miracles: Hebrews 2:3: “God also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His will..”
81 Jesus Proved It By: Walking on Water Multiplying Loaves Healing One Born BlindTurning Water into WineHealing a Man Born LameRaising a Dead & Decaying ManRaising Himself from the Grave!
82 Jesus Proved It By: His Fulfillment of Prophecies His Sinless and Miraculous LifeHis Death and Resurrection
83 Evidence Jesus Really Died Nature of his wounds (whipping, crucifixion, and spear in side) ensured death.His mother, friends and closest disciple witnessed his death.Romans, who were professional executioners, pronounced him dead.
84 Evidence Jesus Really Died Pilate double-checked to make sure Jesus was dead.The Jews never denied the account of Jesus being buried in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea (a member of the Sanhedrin).
85 Evidence Jesus Really Died Non-Christian writers from the first and second centuries recorded the death of Jesus (e.g. Josephus, Tacitus, Thallus, Lucian, Phelgon, The Jewish Talmud.)In light of the historical evidence, modern medical authorities have verified his death.
86 Journal of American Medical Ass’n “Clearly, the weight of historical and medical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead before the wound to his side was inflicted and supports the traditional view that the spear, thrust between his right rib, probably perforated not only the right lung but also the pericardium and heart and thereby ensured his death. Accordingly, interpretations based on the assumption that Jesus did not die on the cross appear to be at odds with modern medical knowledge.” (March 21,1986, p. 1463).
88 Evidence Jesus Actually Rose The Jews admitted the tomb was empty and no one could produce the body.Jesus made 12 different physical appearances over 40 days to over 500 people.Many Jewish priests were converted (Acts 6:7, cf. Acts 15:5) and thousands of unbelievers were converted (Acts 2:41).
89 Evidence Jesus Actually Rose Jesus’ unbelieving brother James, and Saul, an ardent opponent of Christianity, were converted.Scared, scattered, skeptical disciples were transformed into the world’s greatest missionary martyrs overnight.
90 The Twelve Appearances of Christ Persons Saw Heard Touched Other Evidence1. Mary X X X Empty tomb(Jn. 20:10-18)2. Mary & Women X X X Empty tomb(Mt. 28:1-10)3. Peter X X Empty tomb/clothes(1Cor. 15:5)4. Two Disciples X X Ate with Him(Lk. 24:13-35)5. Ten Apostles X X X** Saw wounds, ate food(Lk. 24:36-49;Jn. 20:19-23)6. Eleven Apostles X X X** Saw wounds(Jn. 20:24-31)**Offered Himself to be touched
91 The Twelve Appearances of Christ Persons Saw Heard Touched Other Evidence7. Seven Apostles X X Ate food(Jn. 21)8. All Apostles X X(Mt. 28:16-20;Mk 16:14-18)Brethren X X*(1Cor. 15:6)10. James X X*(1Cor. 15:7)11. All Apostles X X Ate with Him(Acts 1:4-8)12. Paul X X(Acts 9:1-9;1Cor. 15:8)*Implied
92 Conclusion Is There Only One Way? Yes! Because Jesus claimed to be the only way, and He proved it in three miraculous ways. So, He is the only way to God.
93 Why is Jesus the Only Way? GodManBecause only the God-Mancan bridge between God and Man