Magnetism and Electricity Developed By: Sandra Michalik King Elementary.

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Magnetism and Electricity Developed By: Sandra Michalik King Elementary

Unit Overview We will be studying magnetism and electricity for the next few weeks. To keep track of things, we will keep a Science Notebook. We will want to write down our ideas and take notes.

Magnetism Lesson 1 Let’s think about times that we have used magnets in the past. What kinds of things do you remember about magnets/magnetism? We’ll make a chart to record these ideas, and to record additional ideas that we learn about magnetism.

Magnetism Lesson 1 Let’s make a T chart : What I KnowWhat I Want to Learn/ About MagnetsWhat I’ve Learned

Exploring with Magnets Lesson 1 continued  Look at each magnet. Take turns putting the magnets together. Turn them around and try again.  Notice which ends go together and which ones don’t. What words are used to describe what magnets do?

Let’s think about some vocabulary words: Attract- The magnets go together Repel- The magnets push apart Did everyone feel this? Vocabulary Words L/1 cont.

Magnetism Lesson 2 What are the properties of magnets? Let’s review the information in the T chart from lesson one. Each group will receive a tray with magnets and an assortment of objects. What are the do’s and don’ts with magnets? Do have fun and explore. Do NOT put a magnet near a computer. Do NOT drop magnets.

What is in my tray? First, let’s look at each object and hypothesize about how they will interact with the magnets. These will attract: These will repel:

Exploring with Magnets Lesson 2- part I After each group receives a tray, you will take turns testing objects. You need to record your ACTUAL results, or what really happened. These ATTRACTEDThese REPELED

Exploring with Magnets Lesson 2- part II VENN DIAGRAM- Write the correct number in the correct space. 1. cotton2. copper 3. rubber 4. paper 5. steel 6. aluminum 7. carbon8. Iron metal magnetic non-metals

Discussion- Lesson 2  True or False??  All metals are magnetic  False, only iron, nickel and cobalt are magnetic. Steel is magnetic because it has iron in it.  Some non-metals are magnetic.  False, iron, nickel and cobalt are all metals.  Some metals are magnetic.  True!!

Magnetic Fields- Lesson 3 Today we are going to work with magnets again. We will be making observations and writing these in our notebooks. Remember our vocabulary words of attract and repel? We will need those words, plus some new ones!!

Magnetic Fields- Lesson 3 1.What happens when you put two magnets together? The magnets either attract / go together OR they repel / push apart. 2. What happens to a magnet when you hang it from a string? The north pole of the magnet points to the earth’s magnetic pole. Check it out with a compass!!

Magnetic Fields- Lesson 3 continued 3.Do the magnets have to touch each other for anything to happen? No, they don’t have to touch. They just have to be in each other’s magnetic field. 4.How does a magnet “know” when another magnet is near? One magnet “knows” when the other magnet is near because it enters the magnetic field.

Magnetic Fields- Lesson 3 continued 5.How do you know that the magnet has poles/ ends and a middle? If we hang paper clips from the magnet, we find that they will hang from the poles, or ends, but not from the middle.

Discussion- Lesson 3 Let’s review our old vocabulary words: attract and repel What new vocabulary words did we discuss today? North pole, magnetic north and magnetic field

Magnetism- Lesson 4 Yesterday we discussed how magnetic fields affect magnets. Today, we’re going to further investigate these effects, and learn how to represent these on paper. Remember, these are sketches not works of art! How might we show a magnetic field on paper?

Magnetism- Lesson 4 Let’s look at one magnet with iron filings. (Show magnet on overhead) Remember, iron is magnetic. So, when the iron pieces come in contact with the magnet it will SHOW us what the magnetic field looks like.

Drawing One Magnet with Filings- Lesson 4 North South

Two Magnets with Like Poles-Hypothesis  What do you THINK will happen? North South Lesson 4  Let’s do it on the overhead.

Two Magnets with Unlike Poles- Actual North South Opposite poles ATTRACT!!

Two Magnets with Like Poles- Hypothesis North SouthSouth North What do you think will happen?

Two Magnets with Like Poles- Actual North SouthSouth North Like poles REPEL!!

Magnetism Wrap-Up Let’s return to our original ideas and questions that we had about magnetism before this unit- Slide 4 Can we now answer any of these questions? Do we have different thoughts about the original ideas listed? Are there new things you want to learn?

The BIG Ideas About Magnets Like poles… Repel Opposite poles… Attract What kinds of materials are magnetic? Iron, steel (is made of iron), nickel, cobalt Is copper? Or aluminum? NO!

Extending the Lesson Find real-world uses of magnets Learn how magnets are made Write about how magnets can use their magnetic properties Investigate any other questions that you have about magnets

Electricity- Lesson 1 Let’s think about times when we have used or thought about electricity in the past. What do you know about electricity? What do you want to learn?

Safety Guidelines RSince we will be working with electricity, we will need to be aware of safety issues associated with electricity. RWhat are some safety issues that you think are important to be aware of in the classroom? RWhat are some safety issues that might be important to be aware of outside of the classroom? RCheck out www.sce.com/kids/science/basics.html www.sce.com/kids/science/basics.html RHandout: Home Safety Checklist RSince we will be working with electricity, we will need to be aware of safety issues associated with electricity. RWhat are some safety issues that you think are important to be aware of in the classroom? RWhat are some safety issues that might be important to be aware of outside of the classroom? RCheck out www.sce.com/kids/science/basics.html www.sce.com/kids/science/basics.html RHandout: Home Safety Checklist

Safety Continued RWhenever we are given materials they have to be used exactly the way described in the procedures. RWe can not do anything different than the procedures or we may get a shock. These are little and can’t really hurt you, but it can be a bit scary. RIf we feel something getting hot we have to disconnect the wires immediately. RWhenever we are given materials they have to be used exactly the way described in the procedures. RWe can not do anything different than the procedures or we may get a shock. These are little and can’t really hurt you, but it can be a bit scary. RIf we feel something getting hot we have to disconnect the wires immediately.

Electricity- Lesson 2 Lighting a Bulb  Purpose: Can I Light a Bulb?  Materials: Each partner group will be given 1 bulb, 1 D cell battery, and 1 wire to light the bulb.  Procedures: You will try different ways to light the bulb. Then, you will sketch 3 circuits that worked (lit the bulb) and 3 circuits that didn’t work (didn’t light the bulb). Record these in your Science Notebook. Let’s talk about shapes we can use.

Shapes We Can Use to Draw Our Circuits We can use a circle for the top of the bulb and a rectangle for the bottom part. We can use a line for the wire. We can use a rectangle for the battery. Remember to be very clear where the wire touches the bulb and battery.

Conclusion What worked? What didn’t?  Let’s share some of the different sketches that you drew on the overhead.  What is a common thing in all of the circuits that worked? These are closed circuits, because the electricity flowed in a circle.  What is a common thing in all of the circuits that didn’t work? It is an open circuit if there is not a circle of electricity. If heat energy is produced, that is called a short circuit.

Summary of Lesson 2- Circuits  What do we need for a circuit to work?  The bottom and the side of the bulb need to be touching the battery or the wire.  Metal touches metal

Which will light? Which will not? Circuit Mini-Quiz-Lesson 3 Which will light? Which will not? Work with your group members to complete the worksheet ““Predict If Circuits Light or Not.” If you do not agree, use the materials to see if it will light or not. If you do not agree, use the materials to see if it will light or not. We will discuss all circuits in about 15 minutes. We will discuss all circuits in about 15 minutes. Work with your group members to complete the worksheet ““Predict If Circuits Light or Not.” If you do not agree, use the materials to see if it will light or not. If you do not agree, use the materials to see if it will light or not. We will discuss all circuits in about 15 minutes. We will discuss all circuits in about 15 minutes.

Lesson 4- Part I Purpose-What is inside a light bulb?  1- Predict what a light bulb looks like, including the inside that is hidden by the base. Guess what the parts are named.  2- Draw the real, or technical drawing. Label all of the parts.  3- Using a different color, trace the path of electricity through the battery, bulb and wire.

Lesson 4- Part II Lighting a Household Bulb  Predict how many batteries will light the bulb. How will you set up this experiment/circuit?  Class discussion- share ideas.  Test the circuit ideas. What worked? What didn’t work? Draw one of the circuits that worked.

Lab 5- Complex Circuits Purpose- Can I build a complex circuit? k MATERIALS: In each tray there should be a battery, battery holder, light bulb, light bulb socket (with Fahnestock clips) and two clips. k When you use these materials it should look like this. k MATERIALS: In each tray there should be a battery, battery holder, light bulb, light bulb socket (with Fahnestock clips) and two clips. k When you use these materials it should look like this.

Lab 5- Complex Circuit (continued) kWhen you try to light the bulb using the battery holder, & bulb holder with the Fahnestock clips MANY things can go wrong. kRead through the “Checking the Circuit Checklist” to help you problem solve when the circuit doesn’t light the bulb. kOK, try to light the bulb using a complex circuit. kWhen you try to light the bulb using the battery holder, & bulb holder with the Fahnestock clips MANY things can go wrong. kRead through the “Checking the Circuit Checklist” to help you problem solve when the circuit doesn’t light the bulb. kOK, try to light the bulb using a complex circuit.

Lab 5- Conclusion k What worked? What didn’t? k What did I learn? k Do I understand that when anything goes wrong with a circuit I can use the checklist? k What worked? What didn’t? k What did I learn? k Do I understand that when anything goes wrong with a circuit I can use the checklist?

Lesson 6 Activity Sheets/ Quiz 2 & 3  Can I identify which circuits will light and which ones will not?  What is the same about the simple circuits (using a battery, bulb and wire and now using the more complex materials?  Take the quiz- Activity Sheets 2 & 3

Lesson 12- Making a Switch Purpose: Can you make a switch? Materials for switch: (per person) - 1 piece cardboard- wire - 2 brass fasteners- paper clip

Lesson 12- Battery Pads Purpose: Can you make a battery pad? Materials: - aluminum foil-wire

Lesson 12- Bulb Holder Purpose: Can you make a bulb holder? Materials: - cardboard- wire

Flashlights Purpose: Can you build a flashlight? Procedures: -Using all you have learned about circuits, bulb holders, battery pads and switches, build a flashlight. Purpose: Can you build a flashlight? Procedures: -Using all you have learned about circuits, bulb holders, battery pads and switches, build a flashlight.

How are magnets connected to electricity?  Magnets help to produce electricity.  This (the Genecon) is a hand held generator. When I turn the handle it turns a magnet inside a coil of wire. This produces electricity.  The electricity flows through the wire, just like it did when you lit your bulb.

Producing Electricity  Today we’re going to be talking about how energy is produced  Pay close attention because there will be little quizzes throughout the lesson. KEEP ON YOUR TOES!

Lesson 3 Producing Electricity  Most of the electricity in the United States is produced by burning fossil fuels (coal, gas, oil, etc.).  When the fuel is burned it produces heat that can boil water. The steam that is produced turns the turbine in the generator, which turns the magnet inside the coil of wire.

Environmental Issues ZWhat is produced besides energy when we burn fossil fuels? ZPOLLUTION! Is this good? ZNO! ZWhat can we do about this? ZWe can turn off lights, close the refrigerator door, etc. That saves electricity, so we burn less fuel. ZEngineers are also working on other ways to produce electricity: solar power, hydroelectric or water power, wind power, etc.

Environmental Impact ZCarbon dioxide (CO2) is a "greenhouse gas," trapping heat in the lowest part of the earth's atmosphere. This contributes to "global warming" - the average temperature of the earth slowly increases, affecting ecosystems across the globe. ZSulfur dioxide (SO2) is a key contributor to acid rain, primarily in the northeast U.S. ZNitrogen oxide (NOx) contributes to acid rain and smog, as well as health issues such as lung inflammation, immune system changes and eye irritation.

QUIZ!!!! 1) What role does water play in the burning of fossil fuels? Water turns to steam which turns the turbine. 2)What is the name of the gas that gets trapped in the atmosphere? CO2 or Greenhouse Gases

The Hoover Dam

Hydroelectric Power Facts  Hydroelectric power counts for 7% of the budget for the US Energy Budget  We’ve only tapped 30% of the potential hydroelectric power  One liter of water per second can produce 720 watts of energy  What are some disadvantages of hydroelectric power?

QUIZ!!!! 1) How much energy can 1 liter of water per second produce? 720 2) When a turbine turns, how does it create energy? The turbine turns a large coil around a magnet. This creates electricity

New Zealand's Tararua Wind Power project

Wind Power Turbines range in size from ones that are 20 stories high and can power 1400 homes. Smaller ones can power small homes. Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases. North Dakota alone could supply 36% of the US energy using wind plants, but moving that energy is very difficult. What are some disadvantages to wind power?

QUIZ!!!! 1) How much pollution does a wind turbine create? NONE! 2) What is one advantage of using wind produced electricity? Wind is a constant energy source, it can produce a great deal of electricity

Solar Power A home solar system will prevent approximately 170 lbs. of coal from being burned, 300 lbs of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere and 105 gallons of water from being consumed each month!

In Your Notebooks! Choose one form of energy production and write a paragraph and the pros and cons of this method.

Electricity Wrap-Up  Let’s look back at our original chart of what we knew about electricity before this unit. Let’s also look back to the questions that we had about electricity.  Can we now answer any of these questions? Do we have different thoughts about the original ideas listed?

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