Presentation on theme: "Module III Interviewing Techniques Goal To enable interviewers to collect accurate, unbiased data in an outbreak investigation Learning Objectives Identify."— Presentation transcript:
Goal To enable interviewers to collect accurate, unbiased data in an outbreak investigation Learning Objectives Identify the basic steps involved in the interviewing process Identify ways to create a comfortable environment during interviews Identify issues that may arise and techniques to address them
Interviewing Basics Familiarize yourself with the investigation and investigation tools before conducting the interview Remain enthusiastic, confident and upbeat throughout interview Follow the script/survey (if provided) word for word Speak slowly and enunciate
Respondent Perspective – Opening statement of every interview should indicate that all information collected will be kept confidential Outbreak Investigation Perspective – Do not discuss details about the outbreak – Provide only a brief description of the purpose of the survey at first contact Confidentiality
Rapport Interviewers can put respondents at ease by: Reading the questions in a friendly, natural manner Speaking at a moderate rate of speed Sounding interested Striving to be objective and non- judgmental
Interviewer Bias “A systematic difference in soliciting, recording, or interpreting information” To minimize interviewer bias, use the skills mentioned in this training: Ask appropriate probing questions Do not lead Record answers correctly
Introduction Introduce yourself and identify the organization you represent Provide a time estimate for the interview Address confidentiality Offer contact information
Questions and Comments You May Hear What sorts of questions will you ask me? What good are these surveys? How did you get my number? I do not have time to complete a survey
The Survey Ask the same questions in the same manner Remain neutral throughout the interview Record the answer first given, even if the participant provides additional information voluntarily. Do not lead the participant When necessary, prompt for clarification and probe beyond “I do not know”
Eliciting Answers Do not direct respondent toward an answer (leading) Do not assume that an “answer” received in passing is correct Do not skip questions, even if “answer” was given earlier Do not remind respondent of earlier remark if answer differs from what you expect
Probes A probe is a standardized way to obtain additional information from a respondent when the answer is unclear or irrelevant It may be appropriate to have a follow-up probe ready Open-ended questions –“Could you tell me more about that”? –“What did you feel about that”? Closed-ended questions –Offer dates, times of day, or seasonal holidays
Standard Probes Repeat the question Retrieve receipts / calendars If respondent has narrowed down an answer: –Which would be closer? –If you had to choose, which would you pick? What do you mean? How do you mean?
Example of When to Use a Probe Interviewer: "In the past two weeks, have you been swimming in a public pool?” –Irrelevant Response: “I swam in a lake at a national park last month." –Unclear Response: “I stayed in a hotel with a pool when I was on vacation last week."
Probing vs. Leading Example: Interviewer: In the last 7 days, how many times did you eat prepared food at the hospital cafeteria? Would you say: a. Noned. 3 times b. Oncee. More than 3 times c. Twice Respondent: “I didn’t go very often... maybe a few times.”
Probing vs. Leading Example: Interviewer Leading (incorrect) “So, would you say twice, or 3 times?” “Do you mean twice, or 3 times?” Interviewer Probe (correct) “Which would be closer: none, once, twice, 3 times, or more than 3 times?”
Clarification Dealing with clarification questions –Repeat the information in the question –Refer to pre-determined definitions –Respond: “Whatever _____ means to you” Don’t be afraid to say you don’t know
Feedback Helps Maintain Rapport Feedback is a positive statement or action that indicates to the respondent that he or she is doing a good job Give feedback only for acceptable performance - not “good" content Examples of feedback –“I see…” –“Thank you” –“That is useful information” –“I want to make sure I have that right (REPEAT ANSWER)”
Closing the Interview Thank the participant Provide contact information Make sure all questions are completed
Face-to-face Interviews Remain professional in vocal tone, body language, and facial expressions Be attentive and maintain appropriate eye contact Concentrate on what the participant is saying Be accepting of the participant
Potential Obstacles Language barriers Participant may: –Refuse to answer –Be impatient or tired –Go off the subject –Not understand the question or give irrelevant answer –Ask for feedback, confirmation, or additional information
Ways to become a great interviewer Practice Listen Actively Be courteous and professional Know your material AND your limits Avoid introducing bias
References 1.Aschengrau, Ann, and George R. Seage, III. Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health. Jones and Bartlett, 2nd edition, 2008. 2.“I is for Investigation, Session IV: Interviewing Techniques.” UNC Chapel Hill School of Public Health North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness. 3.“Focus Series: Interviewing Techniques”. Vol 2; Issue 3. UNC Chapel Hill School of Public Health North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness training materials.