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Warm Up: Happy Wednesday!!! Two more school days until Spring break!!!!! What do you know about gladiators? Where have you seen gladiators in the media??

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: Happy Wednesday!!! Two more school days until Spring break!!!!! What do you know about gladiators? Where have you seen gladiators in the media??"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up: Happy Wednesday!!! Two more school days until Spring break!!!!! What do you know about gladiators? Where have you seen gladiators in the media??

2 Roman Culture and Society

3 Roman Arts and Literature The Romans spread Greco-Roman arts and culture throughout the empire

4 Roman Arts Developed a taste for Greek statues

5 Sculpture Sculptures produced more realistic works

6 Paintings Painters painted portraits and landscapes on walls of villas

7 Architecture Concrete helped to construct huge buildings that the Greeks could not create Remarkable engineers Roads, bridges, and aqueducts Built 50,000 miles of roads throughout the empire In Rome, a dozen aqueducts kept a population of one million supplied with water

8 Architecture Excelled in architecture Used curved forms Arch, vault and dome

9 Parthenon Found in Rome. It was originally built as a temple to the gods. Later converted to Christian (Catholic) church. Best example of Roman Dome building.

10 Latin Language  Romans spoke Latin; it was the official language of the empire.  It was the language of government, trade, and culture.  If you wanted to do business with Rome, you had to speak Latin.  As Rome spread, and eventually broke apart, the language split apart.  Latin still is taught in some schools (important for law and medical fields), but not in common use.

11 Latin Language Splits  Language splinters into several other languages when Rome falls. These Languages are called “Romance Languages”, named after Rome itself.  French  Spanish  Italian  Portuguese  Romanian

12 Slavery and Slave Revolts  No people in the ancient world had more slaves or depended on slaved more than the Romans  Large numbers of captured soldiers in war became slaves  Used as: household workers, cooks, valets, waiters, cleaners, gardeners, farm laborers  Many slave holders were afraid of their slaves b/c they treated them so awful

13 Slavery and Slave Revolts If a slave killed his master, the slave would be executed and all other slaves would be killed too Most famous slave revolt was led by the gladiator Spartacus In 73 B.C. he led 70,000 slaves Defeated several armies 6,000 of his followers were crucified or nailed to a cross

14 Spartacus is Hollywood

15 Aqueducts and Roman Roads Superb builders Network of 50,000 miles of roads Largest was the Appian Way Rome- a dozen aqueducts kept 1 million people supplied with water

16 Appian Way First Major Roman road. It signaled the start of Rome’s love of building roads.

17 How Aqueducts Work Aqueducts worked by using gravity to get water to a city. Water key to large cities Drinking Water Sewage (Rome’s sewer system was cutting edge

18 Life in Ancient Rome City life in Ancient Rome had great problems similar to life today

19 Family The heart of Roman society was the family Paterfamilias- the dominant (oldest, ususally) male in the house. Included wife, sons and their wives, unmarried daughters, and slaves

20 Education Raised their children at home Upper-class children: expected to learn and read Father was chief figure in providing education Decided whether to teach them, hire a teacher, or send to school Teachers were often Greek slaves

21 Adulthood Childhood ended for: Boys- 16 Girls- 12-14 Ceremony for boys- trade in purple toga Girls ceremony- marriage Women must have male guardians Paterfamilias responsibility When he dies, sons or nearest relative takes over

22 Marriage Girls could get married as young as 12 Boys usually 16-18 Meant for life 3 rd century A.D.- introduce divorce Easy to obtain Husband or wife could ask for it Fathers arranged marriages for their daughters

23 Women More independence and freedom Right to own, inherit and sell property Not segregated from men in the homes Could attend races, theater, amphitheater but sit in separate sections Accompanied by maids Could not participate in politics

24 A Gladiator’s Life Types of Gladiators Circus Maximus and The Colosseum The Roman Gladiators

25 A Gladiator’s Life As Rome expands it comes into conflict with other cultures Majority of those that become gladiators are because of conquest The conquered were then escorted back to Rome where they would be sold in slave markets

26 A Gladiator’s Life Sent to a ludus gladiatorious to be trained Training was under the supervision of a lanista or “the butcher” Abuse was common place and was both physical and psychological (whipping most common) Day consisted of lifting weights and learning the art of death

27 A Gladiator’s Life Common myth is that gladiators were only slaves Majority were but they were criminals, debtors and those condemned to death Trained according to one’s physical attributes or skills

28 At the Coliseum At the coliseum gladiators fought first Concerned about survival and what lanista will do if you do not perform well After condemned are killed, animals hunted and criminal fights Gladiators fight again in late day but it is to the death now

29 Death of Gladiators Defeated gladiators could appeal for mercy but it was at the whim of the crowd Death did not always come at the hands of one’s opponent Men dressed as Roman gods would kill the loser in a variety of ways to add to the sensationalism of the event Thumbs down meant to spare the gladiator A thumb up meant to kill him

30 Colosseum Built by Emperor Vespasian and Titus 70-80 A.D. Seated 45,000, had two large restroom areas, covered area, numbered seating based on class, and had supporting facilities nearby Longest games were 123 days long

31 Colosseum Exotic animals hunts, gladiatorial combat, executions, brutal plays, battle recreations and possibly naval battles with alligators entertained the crowds



34 Material Evidence

35 Zliten Mosaic Originally in a Roman seaside villa Now in Archaeological Musuem Tripoli, Tunisia

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