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A New Kind of Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "A New Kind of Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 A New Kind of Revolution
Chapter 21 Section 1

2 Key Terms Industrial Revolution Enclosure movement
Factors of production Cottage industry Factory Industrialization Jethro Tull Richard Arkwright James Watt Robert Fulton

3 A Revolution in Great Britain
Humans and animals were main energy source People began to develop water and steam power Industrial Revolution-the era when the use of power driven machines was developed

4 Factors for Success Exploration and colonization-provided raw materials such as cotton and fiber Colonies became new markets Sea power brings in raw material and send out manufactured goods because of strong navy

5 Factors of Success Political stability-1700’s at home the country was a peace, commerce thrived Government support-Parliament passed laws that favored business Growth of private investment-private funding for research and development

6 Agricultural Factors Most of research took place on farms
Jethro Tull-1701 invented the seed drill made planting grain more efficient Improved livestock breeding Potatoes were developed

7 Agricultural Factors Increased food supply Population grew
Wealthy landowners combined fields to create large farms Enclosure development-the fencing in of large farms Threw countless farmers of their fields Moved to the city for jobs

8 Britain’s Big Advantage
Factors of productions-land, labor and capitol Land- means all of place’s natural resources Coal to burn as fuel Iron to make steel Water was the most important Streams and rivers turned waterwheels and generated power

9 Britain’s Big Advantage
Waterways provided transportation between mines, factories and markets Mid 1700’s had 1000 miles of canals Grew to 4,000 by 1800 Deep water ports for long distance shipping

10 Britain’s Big Advantage
Labor- had a growing population Thousands lost their farmland Entire families would go to work in an industry Capitol-funds investment for business People with money to spend People with skills inventors

11 A Revolution in Textiles
Began with textile industry Cottage industry- a craft occupation performed at home Industrialization-the process of changing to power driven machinery

12 A New Way to Make Cloth Most fabric made of wool or cotton
Wool increased because of enclosure movement Shipments of cotton came from the colonies Slave labor made cotton farming more profitable Great Britain bought more American cotton

13 A New Way of Making Cloth
Pulling seed from cotton by hand was time consuming Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin (machine) Fiber was then spun into yarn James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny

14 A New Way of Making Cloth
James Arkwright- made a machine that spun stronger, thinner thread Thread woven into fabric Use to be done a t home Power Loom-larger faster weaving system

15 Cloth-making in Factories
New weavers too big for the home Factory- a building that houses industrial machines Needed supplies of power Arkwright built the water frame spinning system Went from 50,000 bolts of cloth to 400,000 in thirty years

16 Steam Powers the Revolution
1712 first steam engine of James Watts machines Put to use in textile industry Factories did not have to be built near water Located where there was fuel and workers

17 Steam Powers the Revolution
Steam used for transportation Richard Trevithick- used steam power for a locomotive Robert Fulton used it for a steamship 1807 Clermont operated on the Hudson River Steamships replace sailing ships

18 Coal for British Steam Engines
Steam engines require a lot of fuel Wood was scarce Had a large supply of coal Coal mining grew as steam power grew 1800 Great Britain produced 80% of Europe's coal

19 Coal for British Steam Engines
Factories built near coal mines Towns grew as factories and homes were built Miners families experienced tragedies Explosions Coal dust Collapsing shafts Hard labor Children slid down narrow shafts to pick coal

20 Industrialization Spreads
Western Europe, Americas Asia and Africa did not industrialize in the 1800’s

21 Industry and the West Western countries individual freedom a significant force People enjoyed political liberty People could compete Western societies competition as good Wealth and fame was the reward

22 Industry and the West Westerners exploited other countries to compete
Competed to improve inventions or processes

23 Industry Comes to America
Britain outlawed the export of certain machines Forbid skilled craftsman from leaving the country Industrial Revolution mainly in Great Britain

24 Industry comes to the America
United States one of the first places to benefit from Industrialization 1791 Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) Industrialization would help the United States gain economic independence Wanted government to bribe British citizens to brink knowledge to U.S.

25 Industry Comes to America
Samuel Slater came from Britain Built a model of the water frame in Rhode Island 1793 built Slater’s Mill In Pawtucket Rhode island Became the father of American industry

26 Industry Comes to America
Textile mill technology spreads Lowell Massachusetts becomes the jewel of American Industry Lowell’s mills were forty multistory buildings on a network of 6 miles of canals

27 Industry Comes to America
Lowell first all in one mill Took raw cotton to fiber to finished cloth Hired young single girls Provided good wages and clean housing 10,000 workers employed by 1850

28 Industry Spreads to Europe
1807 William Cockerill founded a textile factory in Belgium Political unrest delayed industrialization of France 1848 France becomes an industrial power Treaties helped drop trade barriers

29 Industry in Asia Although today Japan is one of the more industrialized nations Took until 1868 for Industrial Revolution to take hold Meiji government came to power modernized the country Japan was ahead of its Asian neighbors

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