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Addressing the Problems and Gaps in Estimating the GHG Inventory from Fugitive Sources During Preparation of the Initial National Communication of Iran Presented by : Mohammad Soltanieh National Project Manager Climate Change Office Department of Environment Islamic Republic of Iran UNFCCC’s CGE Hands-on Training Workshop on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 8-12 Feb., 2005 Shanghai, China
Presentation Overview Energy sector in Iran GHG inventory and share of the fugitive emissions Trend of fugitive emissions in Iran Problems and gaps in estimating the fugitive GHG inventory for Initial National Communication What are the approaches for removing the barriers in preparing the 2 nd National Communication
Energy sector in Iran: Energy sector and its share in GDP
Energy sector in Iran: Trend of primary energy production, domestic consumption, import and export (MBOE, 1971-2002)
Energy sector in Iran: Energy balance in 2002
Energy sector in Iran: Contribution of oil products in sectoral energy demand(%)
Energy sector in Iran : Trend of CO2 emissions by fuel type (Fuel combustion-ktonnes )
Energy sector in Iran: Trend of CO2 emission per capita (tonnes/capita) and per GDP (tonnes/Mn. Rial-constant price 1982 )
National GHG Inventory : Contribution of different sectors to total CO2 Eq. emissions in 1994 (Gg) TotalN2OCH4CO2Sources 8.791,559285,8911. Energy 8.880.6254,354Fuel Combustion 0.01,47831,537Fugitive Emissions 2.21.924,7542. Industry 54.26430.03. Agriculture 0.047.031,4174. Forestry 4.6326.70.05.Waste 69.92,538342,062Total GHG Emissions 310211GWP 417,01021,65853,291342,062Total CO2 Equivalent
National GHG Inventory : Contribution of different sectors to total CO2 Eq. emissions in 1994 (%) Fugitive sources are responsible for 9.2% of the total CO2, 58% of the total CH4 and 15% of the total GHG emissions, respectively.
National GHG Inventory : Contribution of different energy sub-sectors to GHG emissions in 1994 (Gg) TotalN2OCH4CO2Sources 8.880.6254,354Fuel Combustion 0.01,47831,537Fugitive Emissions 8.81,559285,891Total GHG Emissions 310211GWP 321,3572,72632,740285,891Total CO2 Equivalent The table shows that fugitive emissions are responsible for 11% of the CO2 emission and 95% of the CH4 emission in energy sector.
National GHGs Inventory : Contribution of different fugitive emission sources to the total fugitive emissions in 1994 (Gg) CH4CO2Sources 1,47831,537Fugitive Emissions (total) 41.9 Oil Activities 491.6 Gas Activities 93131,537Venting & Flaring 14.5 Coal Mining
Trend of fugitive emissions in Iran CO2 and methane emissions from fugitive sources (Gg)
Fugitive Sources of Emission Oil Activities – Exploration – Production – Transport – Refining – Storage Gas Activities – Production/Processing – Transmission/Distribution – Leakage Venting and Flaring from Oil/Gas Production Coal Mining
Problems and Gaps in Developing GHG Inventory from Fugitive Sources (hot flare) Hot flaring in normal operations: Methane burning on well heads and oil and gas refineries is one of the major CO2 emission sources and the IPCC 1996 Guidelines have not provided the methodology for this type of GHG emission. Expert judgment was used for estimations. Cold flaring in drilling operations: No national emission factors were available. Thus, for well drilling activity other international emission factors were used which include: US EPA (EPA-600/R96, 1996); Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (VOC and Methane Emissions for Canadian Upstream Oil and Gas Industry, Calgary, AB 1999) and the information from the Stockholm Environmental Institute, Boston Center.
Problems and Gaps in Developing GHG Inventory from Fugitive Sources (hot flare)-continued In startup, overhaul of operations, accidents, repair and maintenance operations: The volume of gaseous components that are sent to the flare is closely related to the type of process, skill of the personnel, safety considerations and systems and management, resulting in uncertain estimation. Here again, rough estimates were made by expert judgment.
Leakage in pump stations and gas pipelines: The volume of leakage is closely related to the level of repair and maintenance operations and the type of technology. An average of 1% loss in the gas pipeline was assumed. The IPCC Tier 1 methodology was used for fugitive emissions from oil refining, i.e. 1200 kg CH4/PJ of refined oil and for storage 135 kg CH4/PJ of refined oil. Leakage in unit operations and storage tanks: There is little information available at national level for estimation of such emissions, except for evaporative losses from storage and handling of gasoline. Problems and Gaps in Developing GHG Inventory from Fugitive Sources (cold flare)
What are the approaches for removing the barriers in preparing the 2 nd National Communication Installing the measurement tools in refinery flares. Installing gas analyzers in refinery flares. Using the mass balance approaches for estimation of GHG emissions from process equipments. Using the mass balance approaches in natural gas networks. Installing measurement tools in storage tanks and using mass balance approach. Collecting activity data in storage tanks in terms of throughput capacity instead of volume of crude oil and oil products.
Thank you For Your attention.
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