# 2  Fuel economy improvements directly correlate to reductions in petroleum consumption  Average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles is 72% higher.

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2  Fuel economy improvements directly correlate to reductions in petroleum consumption  Average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles is 72% higher than in 1975  Lighter materials, more advanced engines, hybrid technologies Introduction

3 Lesson 1: Introduction to Fuel Economy

4 Objectives  Define fuel economy  Explain the basic history of fuel economy  Describe how fuel economy improvements may benefit health and the environment  Explain the economic benefits of improved fuel economy  Describe how fuel economy affects energy security

5  A measure of how efficiently a vehicle uses fuel  Miles per gallon (MPG)  Specific tests used to determine ratings  Affected by vehicle design and operation Definition of Fuel Economy

6 Steps to Calculate MPG 1.Fill up your vehicle and clear the trip odometer 2.Drive your normal route 3.Return to the same fuel station and fill up your vehicle, noting the miles on the trip odometer 4.Divide the miles by the gallons that it just took to fill up The result will be your car’s miles per gallon for that driving period. This should be done multiple times to determine your average fuel economy.

7  Improvements with evolution of ICE  Early vehicles = simplicity and cost effectiveness  Rising fuel prices around the world  Environmental concerns Basic History of Fuel Economy Figure 1: Rising fuel prices. Source: NAFTC.

8 1973 Oil Embargo  OPEC members stopped exporting oil to the U.S. and its European allies  Threats were made to cut oil production by 5% increments until economic and political objectives were met  National maximum speed limit of 55 mph  Petroleum rationing Figure 2: Relative fuel economy begins to decrease above 55 miles per hour. Source: Fueleconomy.gov.

9 Clean Air Act  Established the EPA  Sets fuel economy and emission standards  National Ambient Air Quality Standards  CO, HC, NO x, PM  Reduce emissions while improving fuel economy

10 Figure 3: Example of emissions reduction trends for heavy-duty engines. Source: DOE.

11 Current Energy Crisis  Mid 1980s to 2003: price for barrel of oil = less than \$25  Late 2007: price for barrel of oil = more than \$100  Decline in petroleum reserves, tension in the Middle East, oil price speculation, etc

12 Figure 4: Petroleum price by year. Source: EIA.

13 Figure 5: Total U.S. oil supply, 1980-2011. Source: EIA.

14 Policies  Fuel economy objectives in the next two decades  Reduce emissions and transportation costs  Increase overall fuel economy ICE Evolution  Generally gasoline or diesel powered  Engines have evolved to incorporate fuel efficient techniques

15 Gasoline Engines  First engines = inefficient and had low power density  Utilization of carburetor  Electronically controlled fuel injection Diesel Engines  Heavy-duty applications  High emitters of pollutant emissions  Engine and exhaust modifications

16  Engine and vehicle design  Fuel is used to create energy  Road load equation shows where power is consumed  Consumption increases as engine power increases  Power for accessories and auxiliary equipment Engine Power = Power to Accelerate Vehicle + Power to Overcome Wind Drag + Power to Overcome Road Grade + Power to Overcome Friction + Accessory Power What Affects Fuel Economy?

17  EPA tracks emissions for all vehicles  Fuel efficiency per given amount of power  Increased standards put in place by the Obama administration  CAFE regulations Fuel Economy Today

18 Manufacturer  Must meet emissions requirements and fuel economy requirements  Advances in vehicle technology  Transmission advances (i.e. CVT)  Vehicle weight and size  Vehicle aerodynamics

19 Consumers  Fuel economy is greatly affected by how the driver operates the vehicle  Strategies to improve fuel economy for all vehicles  Each strategy may contribute a small amount  Some strategies  Proper tire inflation  Unload unnecessary weight  Use cruise control

20 Information from the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) on fuel economy information can be found online at http://www.fueleconomy.gov/ or by phone at 1-877-377-3463. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/

21  Many fuel saving techniques can be implemented at no cost  Required vehicle maintenance  Aftermarket products often do not work  Driving habits Why Consider Fuel Economy Improvements?

22 Advantages of Fuel Economy Improvements  Immediate fuel price savings  Less petroleum consumption in the U.S.  Research will create domestic job opportunities

23 Additional Things to Consider  Some advantages may not give immediate results  Purchasing more fuel efficient vehicles can become costly  Techniques may not be applicable for heavy- duty vehicles

24  Fuel efficient vehicles offer many benefits  Reduced petroleum consumption  Far-reaching benefits Fuel Economy Benefits

25  Decreased amounts of harmful emissions  Emissions may lead to respiratory illness  PM may be carcinogenic  Efficient vehicles will produce fewer of these emissions Health Benefits

26  Fewer emissions  Emissions may lead to the formation of smog and acid rain  Decreased GHG emissions Environmental Benefits

27 Did You Know? The Federal Trade Commission has several tips for consumers to save money: At the pump, check the owner’s manual for the most effective octane level In the garage, stay up to date on maintenance of the vehicle When shopping around for a new vehicle, be skeptical about any gizmo that promises to improve gas mileage

28  Higher efficiency = lower fuel costs  Many techniques can be implemented at no charge to the driver  Job creation in the research and production sectors  Government mandated emissions standards Economic Benefits

29 To calculate fuel costs and compare savings for two vehicles, take a look at: http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/savemoney.shtml http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/savemoney.shtml

30  Reduced dependence on foreign oil  About half of all oil consumed in the U.S. is imported  Stimulates economies outside of the U.S. Energy Security Benefits

31 Upon completing this lesson, can you:  Define fuel economy?  Explain the basic history of fuel economy?  Describe how fuel economy improvements may benefit health and the environment?  Explain the economic benefits of improved fuel economy?  Describe how fuel economy affects energy security?

32 1.True or False: The higher the fuel economy of a vehicle, the greater distance it may travel in relation to the amount of fuel it consumes. 2. What is the most common unit of measure for fuel economy? 3. Proper _____________ of tires can increase vehicle fuel economy. 4.True or False: Consumers can apply strategies to improve fuel economy only to new vehicles. Test Your Knowledge

33 Lesson 2: Fuel Economy Policies, Infrastructure, and Sustainability

34 Objectives  Describe the policies that drive fuel economy improvements  Explain manufacturer and consumer methods for implementing fuel economy improvements  Describe how a basic infrastructure of knowledge and practices can be distributed  Explain how fuel economy improvements relate to sustainability and cost efficiency

35  Policies and laws to deal with and promote fuel efficiency  Reduce air pollution, increase the use of domestic energy  Better driving habits  Laws that pertain to air quality and vehicle emissions standards:  Clean Air Act of 1963  Air Quality Act of 1967  Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970  Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 Fuel Economy Policies Figure 6: U.S. Capitol building. Source: DOE.

36 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)  Enacted by Congress in 1975  Reduce energy consumption by increasing fuel economy  Response to 1973 Oil Embargo  NHTSA and EPA work to set CAFE  Average MPG of a fleet for any given model year  Changing requirements

37 Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (AMFA)  Government must obtain a number of alcohol and natural gas vehicles for federal fleets  Interagency Commission on Alternative Motor Fuels Energy Policy Act (EPAct)  Enacted in 1992 to accelerate the use of alternative fuels  Increase energy security by using domestic fuels

38 Fuel Economy Policies of Today  Obama administration raised fuel economy requirements to 35.5 MPG by model year 2016  Will save approximately 1.8 billion barrels of oil  Target of 54.5 MPG by 2025  Drastic reductions in fuel consumption Figure 7: President Barrack Obama introduced new CAFE standards in 2011. Source: whitehouse.gov.

39  New window labels for all new vehicles  Annual fuel cost, average fuel savings, GHG rating, smog rating  Direct consumers to fueleconomy.gov  Tips and practices to increase fuel economy EPA Fuel Economy Window Label

40 Figure 8: New EPA window label for consumers. Source: EPA.

41 Vehicle Technology and Fuel  Fuel type is displayed on window sticker  Gasoline, natural gas, electric, diesel, hybrid Fuel Consumption Rate  Given fuel economy vs. individual fuel economy  Comparison of vehicles  Driving techniques greatly affect fuel economy Figure 9: Other labels for alternative energy sources. Source: EPA.

42 Figure 10: Gallons per mile measure of fuel economy. Source: fueleconomy.gov.

43 Alternative Fueled Vehicles  Each fuel has a different energy content by mass  Miles per gasoline gallon equivalent (MPGe)  Miles per gallon for gasoline and diesel

44 Figure 11: New fuel economy label for electric vehicle with fuel economy in units of MPGe. Source: EPA.

45 To see all of the new labels, visit http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/labe l/docs/EPA_FE_Label-052311.pdf http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/labe l/docs/EPA_FE_Label-052311.pdf

46 Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gases  Ratings from 1 to 10 for fuel economy and GHG emissions  Higher fuel economy = better GHG emissions profile  CO 2 emissions are given in grams per mile

47 RatingMPGCO 2 (g/mile) 1038+0-236 931-37237-290 827-30291-334 723-26335-394 622395-412 519-21413-479 417-18480-538 315-16539-612 213-14613-710 10-12711+ Figure 13: Scale as seen on window sticker. Source: fueleconomy.gov. Figure 12: Fuel economy and CO2 levels. Source: fueleconomy.gov.

48 Smog Rating  Emissions can lead to smog formation  New window sticker identifies smog forming emissions as “other air pollutants”  Based on U.S. vehicle emissions standards Figure 14 (left): Smog formed from environmental pollution. Source: DOE. Figure 15 (right): Smog scale for comparison for new vehicle purchase. Source: fueleconomy.gov.

49 Fuel Economy and Emissions Test Procedures  Light-duty vehicles: chassis dynamometer  Heavy-duty vehicles: chassis dynamometer, engine dynamometer  Five test cycles  City driving  Highway driving  Air conditioning usage  High speed driving  Cold conditions operation  Federal Test Procedure (FTP)

50 Driving Schedule Attributes Test Schedule CityHighwayHigh SpeedAC Cold Temp Trip Type Low speeds in stop-and-go urban traffic Free-flow traffic at highway speeds Higher speeds; harder acceleration & braking AC use under hot ambient conditions City test w/ colder outside temperature Top Speed56 mph60 mph80 mph54.8 mph56 mph Average Speed 21.2 mph48.3 mph48.4 mph21.2 mph Max. Acceleration 3.3 mph/sec3.2 mph/sec 8.46 mph/sec 5.1 mph/sec3.3 mph/sec Simulated Distance 11 mi.10.3 mi.8 mi.3.6 mi.11 mi. Time31.2 min.12.75 min.9.9 min. 31.2 min. Stops23None4523 Idling time18% of timeNone7% of time19% of time18% of time Engine Startup* ColdWarm Cold Lab temperature 68–86ºF95ºF20ºF Vehicle air conditioning Off OnOff Figure 16: Fuel economy and emissions tests characteristics. Source: EPA.

51 Figure 17: Federal Test Procedure drive cycle. Source: fueleconomy.gov.

52 Consumer Awareness  Many new technologies may not be entirely understood by the consumer  Increased implementation will make these technologies more common place Window Sticker… Fine Print  Individual fuel economy will vary greatly  Driving conditions and habits will cause fuel economy to fluctuate

53  Implementation of new technologies to meet CAFE regulations and EPA standards  Complex technologies  Effects of technologies must be completely disclosed to consumers Manufacturer Implementation

54  New and used vehicles  Implementation may not involve capital investment  Fuel savings, cost savings  May lead to better vehicle operation Consumer Implementation

55  Distribution of Knowledge  No physical alterations are needed  Strategies can be implemented anywhere  Social networking systems, smart phones will help increase awareness of techniques  Immediate nationwide effects Distribution and Infrastructure

56 Infrastructure  Government mandates, increased fuel economy standards  Educational network  Feedback from new vehicle models  Required vehicle monitoring systems (i.e. tire pressure monitoring systems)

57 Gas Guzzler Tax  Created in 1978 during the Oil Embargo  Implemented to discourage consumers and manufacturers from buying and producing inefficient vehicles  Applies to light-duty passenger cars only

58 Figure 18: Gas guzzler tax based on fuel economy. Source: epa.gov.

59  Strategies and techniques are completely sustainable  Will help sustain other AFVs  Step toward complete energy independence Sustainability

60 Did You Know? Today’s vehicles are complex machines with more than 3,000 interactive parts. Regular maintenance of these vehicles can extend vehicle life and reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Source: The Auto Alliance.

61 Cost Efficiency  Small savings will add up to a large change  If techniques and technologies are adopted nationwide, the change will be pivotal The Future of Fuel Economy  CAFE standards and emissions requirements  Manufacturer production and consumer acceptance  Various technologies and strategies

62 Upon completing this lesson, can you:  Describe the policies that drive fuel economy improvements?  Explain manufacturer and consumer methods for implementing fuel economy improvements?  Describe how a basic infrastructure of knowledge and practices can be distributed?  Explain how fuel economy improvements relate to sustainability and cost efficiency?

63 1.True or False: Future fuel economy standards will be lower than current standards. 2. What does the acronym CAFE stand for? 3. New window stickers will have a scale for fuel economy and GHG emissions ratings as well as _________ ratings from other emissions. 4.True or False: Implementing consumer fuel economy strategies will require sophisticated tools and vehicle modifications. Test Your Knowledge

64 Lesson 3: Fuel Efficient Vehicles and Fuel Economy Strategies

65 Objectives  Explain typical differences between fuel efficient and conventional vehicles using new advanced technology  Explain consumer strategies for improved fuel economy and their effects  Describe new fuel efficient vehicle performance, safety, and maintenance  Describe some fuel efficient production vehicles

66  Options for consumers  Ranges of fuel economy/efficiency  Personal vehicle preference Differences Between Fuel Efficient Vehicles and Conventional Vehicles Figure 19 (left): Bentley Continental Flying Spur. Source: AFDC. Figure 20 (right): The Chevrolet Volt, 60 MPGe. Source: NAFTC.

67 What Affects Vehicle Fuel Economy?  Engine and vehicle design  Road load equation  Mass of the car  Vehicle acceleration  Density of the air  Drag coefficient  Frontal area of the vehicle  Velocity  Rolling resistance  Gravity  Road grade

68 Acceleration  Energy required to propel the car to cruising speed  Multiple acceleration events = lower fuel economy Mass (Weight)  Lighter vehicles typically = better fuel economy  New materials used for engine components

69 C d and Area  Smaller frontal area typically = better fuel economy  Low, sharp frontal area design µ (Tire Choice)  Rolling resistance tires  Energy wasted from tire deformation  Underinflated tires

70 Sin θ (Road grade)  Hill terrain vs. flat terrain  Maintaining required power

71 Technology of New Fuel Efficient Vehicles  Variable valve timing and lift  Cylinder deactivation  Turbo chargers and super chargers  Integrated starter/generator  Direct fuel injection

72 TechnologyAverage Efficiency Increase Variable Valve Timing & LiftVariable Valve Timing & Lift improves engine efficiency by optimizing the flow of fuel & air into the engine for various engine speeds. 5% Cylinder DeactivationCylinder Deactivation saves fuel by deactivating cylinders when they are not needed. 7.5% Turbochargers & SuperchargersTurbochargers & Superchargers increase engine power, allowing manufacturers to downsize engines without sacrificing performance or to increase performance without lowering fuel economy. 7.5% Integrated Starter/Generator (ISG) Systems Integrated Starter/Generator (ISG) Systems automatically turn the engine on/off when the vehicle is stopped to reduce fuel consumed during idling. 8% Direct Fuel InjectionDirect Fuel Injection (w/ turbo charging or supercharging) delivers higher performance with lower fuel consumption.(w/ turbo charging or supercharging) 11-13% Figure 21: New engine technologies that improve fuel economy. Source: fueleconomy.gov.

73 Transmission Technology  Continuously variable transmission (CVT)  Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) Figure 22: New transmission technologies. Source: fueleconomy.gov. TechnologyAverage Efficiency Increase Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVTs)Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVTs) have an infinite number of "gears", providing seamless acceleration and improved fuel economy. 6% Automated Manual Transmissions (AMTs) Automated Manual Transmissions (AMTs) combine the efficiency of manual transmissions with the convenience of automatics (gears shift automatically). 7%

74 Hybrid Electric Vehicles  Most fuel efficient production vehicles  ICEs and electric motors  Torque assist  Idle shutoff function  Switching between power sources

75  Early fuel efficient vehicles = undersized engines and manual transmissions  Newer fuel efficient vehicles = nearly identical to conventional vehicles  Hybrid technologies applied to light- and heavy-duty vehicles  Regular maintenance must also be conducted Fuel Efficient Vehicle Performance, Safety, and Maintenance

76  Can provide immediate fuel economy benefits  Require little additional cost, time, tools  May be applied to any vehicle Consumer Strategies Figure 23: Alternative fuel technologies. Source: NAFTC.

77  Slow down  Coasting  Cruise control  Tire pressure  Weight  Air conditioning  Rerouting  Maintenance  Transmission  Motor oil Figure 24 (left): Cruise control button and controls. Source: fueleconomy.gov. Figure 25 (right): Extra weight can decrease vehicle fuel economy. Source: fueleconomy.gov.

78 The following table presents some of the most fuel efficient light-duty cars and trucks for the 2012 model year. Fuel Efficient Vehicles

79 EPA ClassVehicle Description Fuel Economy Combined Two-Seaters Honda CR-Z 4 cyl, 1.5 L, Automatic (AV-S7), HEV, Regular 37 Minicompacts Scion iQ 4 cyl, 1.3 L, Automatic (CVT), Regular 37 Subcompacts Mitsubishi i-MiEV A-1, 66 kW DCPM, Electric Vehicle 112‡ Compacts Chevrolet Volt 4 cyl, 1.4 L, Automatic (AV), Plug-in Hybrid 60§ Midsize Nissan Leaf A-1, Electric Vehicle 99‡ Large Hyundai Sonata 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Manual (6), Regular Hyundai Sonata 4 cyl, 2.4 L, Automatic (6), Regular 28 Small Station Wagons Audi A3 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic (S6), Diesel 34 Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual (6), Diesel 34 Midsize Station Wagons Toyota Prius v 4 cyl, 1.8 L, Automatic (CVT), HEV, Regular 42 Figure 26: Most fuel efficient passenger cars for 2012 model year. Source: EPA.

80 EPA ClassVehicle Description Fuel Economy Combined Small Pickup Trucks Toyota Tacoma 2WD 4 cyl, 2.7 L, Manual (5), Regular Gasoline 22 Standard Pickup Trucks Chevrolet Silverado 15 Hybrid 2WD 8 cyl, 6.0 L, Automatic (CVT), Regular Gasoline Chevrolet Silverado 15 Hybrid 4WD 8 cyl, 6.0 L, Automatic (CVT), Regular Gasoline 21 GMC Sierra 15 Hybrid 2WD 8 cyl, 6.0 L, Automatic (CVT), Regular Gasoline GMC Sierra 15 Hybrid 4WD 8 cyl, 6.0 L, Automatic (CVT), Regular Gasoline 21 Sport Utility Vehicles Ford Escape Hybrid FWD 4 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic (CVT), Regular Gasoline 32 Minivans Mazda 5 4 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic (S5), Regular Gasoline Mazda 5 4 cyl, 2.5 L, Manual (6), Regular Gasoline 24 Passenger Vans Chevrolet Express 1500 2WD FFV 8 cyl, 5.3 L, Automatic (4), Regular Gasoline Chevrolet Express 1500 AWD FFV 8 cyl, 5.3 L, Automatic (4), Regular Gasoline 14† Ford E150 Wagon FFV 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic (4), Regular Gasoline 14† Special Purpose Vehicles Azure Dynamics Transit Connect Electric Van A-1, 52 kWAC, Electric Azure Dynamics Transit Connect Electric Wagon A-1, 52 kWAC, Electric 62‡ Figure 26: Most fuel efficient trucks and SUVs for 2012 model year. Source: EPA.

81 Heavy-duty Trucks (Tractor Trailers)  Fuel economy around 6 MPG  Integrating light-duty technologies into heavy- duty trucks  Fuel consumption may be reduced by up to 50%  Heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles

82 Upon completing this lesson, can you:  Explain the typical differences between fuel efficient and conventional vehicles including new advanced technology?  Explain consumer strategies for improved fuel economy and their effects?  Describe new fuel efficient vehicle performance, safety, and maintenance?  Describe some fuel efficient production vehicles?

83 1.True or False: Carrying extra weight/cargo can improve overall fuel economy. 2. __________ charging or ____________ charging technologies have allowed vehicle manufacturers to utilize smaller, lighter engines. 3. Under inflated tires can reduce fuel economy by up to ________%. 4.True or False: There are now options for more fuel efficient cars, light-duty trucks, and even heavy-duty trucks. Test Your Knowledge

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