Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Section 3 (1) A Time of Conflict Americans in Foreign Seas A. By 1800’s U.S. was 2 nd only to England. 1. World travel increases (China market)."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9: Section 3 (1) A Time of Conflict Americans in Foreign Seas A. By 1800’s U.S. was 2 nd only to England. 1. World travel increases (China market). 2. Profited from French/British War. B. Barbary Pirates 1. Tripoli – Barbary states of N. Africa (Libya today). 2. Demanded tributes. C. War with Tripoli 1. Jefferson refused to pay additional tributes. 2.Tripoli declares war in 1801. a. 1804 – Philadelphia seized by pirates. b. Stephen Decatur slips into harbor, buns ship. c. Negotiations end conflict in 1805 i. Tribute stops ii. Ransom crew for $60K. U.S. paid.
Chapter 9: Section 3 (2) A Time of Conflict I.Freedom of the Seas A. 1804 sees T. Jefferson re-elected – good economy had benefited from European conflicts. B. Neutral Rights Violated 1. 1803 sees Britain & France at war. a. Neutral rights allows U.S. to trade with both. b. U.S. benefits greatly. 2. 1805 – Tensions a. Britain blockades French coast, threatens to search all ships trading with France. b. France threatens to search & seize all ships trading with Britain. C. American Sailors Kidnapped 1. British Navy in trouble – bad conditions, deserters.
Chapter 9: Section 3 (3) A Time of Conflict 2. Naval patrols claim right to stop American ships at sea to search for deserters. 3. Impressment resumes D. Attack on the Chesapeake 1. 1807 - British warship Leopard intercepts Chesapeake. 2. Demands to search – Americans refuse. 3. British open fire a. Kill 3, wound 18, cripples ship 4. America reacts with Anti-British fury a. Secretary of State Madison calls it an outrage b. Jefferson upset but chooses not to go to war.
Chapter 9: Section 3 (4) A Time of Conflict E. Trade Ban 1. Some bans already in place following impressment violations of natural rights. 2. Embargo Act of 1807 a. Democratic- Republican Congress passes b. Bans imports & exports from all foreign countries. i. Effort to target Britain ii. Hopes to avoid 3 rd party markets. 3. Disaster! a. Wipes out all American commerce with other nations. b. Doesn’t affect Britain except to open new markets to them. 4. March 1, 1808 – Embargo Act Repealed
Chapter 9: Section 3 (5) A Time of Conflict a. Non-intercourse Act replaces b. Prohibits trade only with Britain & France c. Not popular or successful F. Jefferson leaves Office 1. Following 2-term precedent Jefferson steps down. 2. James Madison runs as D-R candidate 3. Federalists nominate Charles Pinkney (again!) 4. Madison wins 122-47 III. War Fever A. Madison takes office under less than ideal circumstances. 1. Embargo crisis
Chapter 9: Section 3 (6) A Time of Conflict 2. Britain still stopping American ships B. Closer to War 1.1810 Congress passes law permitting direct trade with the first country to lift trade restrictions (Br/Fr). a. Napoleon tricks U.S. by saying they will lift trade restrictions. b. Continues to capture American ships, reselling 2. American public opinion split a. War pending, but who is the bigger enemy? C. Frontier Conflicts 1. On the home front – Madison has problems in West a. 1801-1810, settlers pressing into Ohio Valley. b. Native Americans had given up 100+ million acres c. Whites now moving onto lands protected by treaty.
Chapter 9: Section 3 (7) A Time of Conflict 2. Some Native Americans resume British trade. 3. Shawnee Chief Tecumseh builds confederacy in Northwest. a. Believes in strong alliance – with British help can stop westward movement. b. Charismatic says that separate NA nation treaties were worthless. c. The Prophet, Tecumseh’s brother, powerful ally i. Urges NA to turn back to ways of ancestors ii. Founded Prophetstown at confluence of Wabash & Tippecanoe Rivers. D. Meeting with Harrison 1. Gen. William H. Harrison – Amer. Gov. of Indiana Territory nervous.
Chapter 9: Section 3 (8) A Time of Conflict 2. Sends letter to Tecumseh – attempts to warn off 3. Tecumseh comes to see Harrison – warns off Whites! E. Battle of Tippecanoe 1. 1811, Tecumseh traveling south to try & unite tribes 2. Harrison attacks Prophetstown a. Two-hour battle ends with Prophet’s forces fleeing. b. Proclaims “Glorious Victory” for Americans c. Harrison nicknamed “Tippecanoe” 3. Battle results in Native Americans allying with British 4. American settlers use excuse for “On to Canada!” Claim British were behind arming Tecumseh’s men. IV. War Hawks! A. Madison facing demands for more aggressive policy towards British.
Chapter 9: Section 3 (9) A Time of Conflict B. War Hawks push for war 1. Young D-R from south and west elected in 1810 2. Leaders – Henry Clay (KY) & John Calhoun (SC) 3. Justification a. Nationalism – tout patriotism b. Hunger for land i. Canadian timber ii. Spanish Florida 4. Congress quadrupled army size C. Northeast (Federalists) oppose war V. Declaring War A. Madison concludes that war is inevitable. B. June 1, 1812 – asks Congress for declaration of war C. Meanwhile…Britain ends policy of search & seizure, but news travels slow.