Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Alterations of Erythrocyte Function

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Alterations of Erythrocyte Function"— Presentation transcript:

1 Alterations of Erythrocyte Function
Chapter 26

2 Anemia Reduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin Impaired erythrocyte production Acute or chronic blood loss Increased erythrocyte destruction Combination of the above

3 Anemia Classifications Etiology Morphology
Based on MCV, MCH, and MCHC values Size Identified by terms that end in -cytic Macrocytic, microcytic, normocytic Hemoglobin content Identified by terms that end in -chromic Normochromic and hypochromic

4 Anemia Anisocytosis Poikilocytosis
Red cells are present in various sizes Poikilocytosis Red cells are present in various shapes

5 Anemia Physiologic manifestation
Reduced oxygen carrying capacity Variable symptoms based on severity and the ability for the body to compensate Classic anemia symptoms Fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, and pallor

6 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Also termed megaloblastic anemias Characterized by defective DNA synthesis Due to deficiencies in vitamin B12 or folate Coenzymes for nuclear maturation and the DNA synthesis pathway Ribonucleic acid (RNA) processes occur at a normal rate Results in the unequal growth of the nucleus and cytoplasm

7 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Pernicious anemia Caused by a lack of intrinsic factor from the gastric parietal cells Required for vitamin B12 absorption Results in vitamin B12 deficiency

8 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Pernicious anemia Typical anemia symptoms Neurologic manifestations Nerve demyelination Others Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, beefy red tongue (atrophic glossitis), icterus, and splenic enlargement Treatment Parenteral or high oral doses of vitamin B12

9 Pernicious Anemia

10 Macrocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Folate deficiency anemia Absorption of folate occurs in the upper small intestine Not dependent on any other facilitating factor Similar symptoms to pernicious anemia except neurologic manifestations are generally not seen Treatment requires daily oral administration of folate

11 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias
Characterized by red cells that are abnormally small and contain reduced amounts of hemoglobin. Related to: Disorders of iron metabolism Disorders of porphyrin and heme synthesis Disorders of globin synthesis

12 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias
Iron deficiency anemia Most common type of anemia worldwide Nutritional iron deficiency Metabolic or functional deficiency Progression of iron deficiency causes: Brittle, thin, coarsely ridged, and spoon-shaped nails A red, sore, and painful tongue

13 Iron Deficiency Anemia

14 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias
Sideroblastic anemia Group of disorders characterized by anemia Altered mitochondrial metabolism causing ineffective iron uptake and resulting in dysfunctional hemoglobin synthesis Ringed sideroblasts within the bone marrow are diagnostic Sideroblasts are erythroblasts that contain iron granules that have not been synthesized into hemoglobin

15 Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemias
Sideroblastic anemia Dimorphism Myelodysplastic syndrome Erythropoietic hemochromatosis

16 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Characterized by red cells that are relatively normal in size and hemoglobin content but insufficient in number

17 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Aplastic anemia Pancytopenia Pure red cell aplasia Fanconi anemia Posthemorrhagic anemia Acute blood loss from the vascular space

18 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Hemolytic anemia Accelerated destruction of red blood cells Autoimmune hemolytic anemias Immunohemolytic anemia Warm antibody immunohemolytic anemia Drug-induced hemolytic anemia Cold agglutinin immunohemolytic anemia Cold hemolysin hemolytic anemia

19 Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia

20 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias
Sickle cell anemia Anemia of chronic inflammation Mild to moderate anemia seen in: AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, renal failure, and malignancies Pathologic mechanisms Decreased erythrocyte life span Ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin Altered iron metabolism

21 Anemia of Chronic Inflammation

22 Myeloproliferative RBC Disorders
Polycythemia Overproduction of red blood cells Relative polycythemia Result of dehydration Fluid loss results in relative increases of red cell counts and Hgb and Hct values

23 Polycythemia Absolute polycythemia Primary absolute Secondary absolute
Abnormality of stem cells in the bone marrow Polycythemia vera (PV) Secondary absolute Increase in erythropoietin as a normal response to chronic hypoxia or an inappropriate response to erythropoietin-secreting tumors

Download ppt "Alterations of Erythrocyte Function"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google