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Presentation on theme: "KINGDOM PLANTAE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Why are they relevant? Photosynthesis provides Oxygen
Plants are the basis of all food chains Clothing, medicine, textiles, etc. Interlocking roots prevent erosion

3 Where did they come from?
Fossil record is sketchy (no hard parts to fossilize) Most scientists believe they came from green algae (protists) and moved to land to get closer to the sun…

4 Plant Characteristics
All are Multicellular Eukaryotes All contain chloroplasts Most are non-motile

5 Groups of plants: Seedless
Bryophytes: Mosses, liverworts and hornworts. One cell thick, very primitive, must remain wet. No veins to carry food and water, they use osmosis instead Need water for sperm to swim to egg in reproduction (no seeds)

6 Groups of Seedless Plants Continued…
Ferns Leaf is called a frond Still no seeds, sperm swim to egg Have vascular tissue, so they can grow taller Types of vascular tissue: Xylem carries water up from roots Phloem carries sugar down from leaves

7 Groups of plants continued… SEED plants
Vascular SEED Plants: Gymnosperms: “naked seed” evergreens like pine and spruce. Seed does not have any protection and develops on a cone. Angiosperms: “seed in a vessel” or a fruit. Flowering plants that use fruits to protect the seeds

8 Angiosperms Annual v. Perennial Anything that has seeds is a FRUIT!!
Peppers? YES! Pumpkins? YES! Tomatoes? YES! Corn? YES!

9 Two divisions of angiosperms:
Monocots: have ONE seed leaf (Cotyledon) and leaves have PARALLEL veins. Example: grass or palm trees Dicots: have TWO seed leaves and leaves have branched veins. Example: oak tree (deciduous) or rose

10 Plant Organs: Roots, stems, leaves and flowers
Roots: Collect water Tap roots or fibrous Root hairs increase surface area and absorption of roots

11 Plant Organs Stems: Transport food down the stem in the phloem and water up the stem from the roots to the leaves in the xylem.

12 Plant Organs Leaves: Covered with waxy cuticle, filled with chloroplasts, get held broad to the sun so they can easily photosynthesize, have veins of xylem and phloem. Contain stomata (a pore) surrounded by 2 guard cells which let CO2 in depending on whether or not the plant has enough water (turgidity) Wilted = closed full = turgid and open

13 Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621
Cuticle Leaf structure Upper epidermis Vascular bundle Xylem Phloem Lower epidermis Spongy mesophyll Stomata Guard cell Section 23.2 Summary – pages

14 Leaves

15 Stoma

16 Plant Organs Flowers: The reproductive organs
Male = stamen which is made up of the anther and the filament Female = pistil which is made up of the stigma, style and ovary

17 Flower Anatomy Male Female

18 Vocabulary Time: Pollination = transfer of pollen from flower to flower

19 Vocabulary Time: Fertilization = the actual meeting of egg and sperm (from pollen)

20 Vocabulary Time: Germination = a seed growing into a plant

21 How are flowers pollinated?
Insects Birds Wind

22 Once fertilized, how are seeds dispersed to where the new young plant will grow?
Wind Water Animals

23 Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 12H20  C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
Reactants = carbon dioxide, water and sunlight Products = glucose (food for the plant), oxygen (for us!) and water

24 Photosynthesis

25 Modifications Plants like cactus adapted leaves to avoid dessication.
Plants that do not get enough nutrients from photosynthesis have adapted: Venus fly trap and pitcher plant

26 Plant behavior Phototropism: movement TOWARD light. Leaves have a + phototropism, roots have a – phototropism Gravitropism: movement toward gravity.

27 Phototropism

28 Question 1 A. cellulose B. proteins C. glucose D. chlorophyll
Most plants produce their own food in the form of _______. A. cellulose B. proteins C. glucose D. chlorophyll The answer is C.

29 Question 2 Answer Why are most plant roots not covered in a cuticle?
The waxy cuticle would prevent the plant’s roots from absorbing water and nutrients.

30 Question 3 A. absorbing water and nutrients
Which of the following is NOT a function of most plant roots? A. absorbing water and nutrients B. conducting photosynthesis C. store starch D. anchoring the plant The answer is B.

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