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Joint Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Joint Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joint Structure

2 Classification of Joints
Fibrous (synarthroses): lacks a joint cavity and the articulating bones are held very closely together by fibrous connective tissue; they permit little or no movement sutures syndesmoses gomphoses

3 Sutures found between the bones of the skull and are united by a thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue

4 Syndesmoses fibrous connective tissue forms an interosseous membrane or ligament (distal articulation of the tibia and fibula, shafts of radius and ulna)

5 Gomphoses cone-shaped peg fits into a socket (teeth)

6 Classification of Joints
Cartilaginous (amphiarthroses): lacks a joint cavity and the articulating bones are tightly connected by cartilage synchrondrosis symphyses

7 Synchrondrosis connecting material is hyaline cartilage (epiphyseal plate)

8 Symphyses connecting material is a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage (pubic symphysis; bodies of vertebrae)

9 Classification of Joints
Synovial (diarthroses): joint cavity (space between the articulating bones) is present; freely movable. Gliding Hinge Pivot Ellipsoidal Saddle Ball and socket

10 Synovial Joints are freely movable

11 Gliding side-to-side and back-and-forth movements (biaxial); articulating surfaces are usually flat (intercarpal, intertarsal, sternum and clavicle)


13 Synovial Joints

14 Hinge motions are flexion/extension (monoaxial); convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another (elbow, knee)


16 Synovial Joints

17 Pivot rotational movement (monoaxial); rounded, pointed, or concave surface fits into a ring formed partly by bone and partly by a ligament (atlas and axis)


19 Synovial Joints

20 Ellipsoidal side-to-side and back-and-forth movements (biaxial); oval shaped condyle fits into an elliptical cavity (wrist)


22 Synovial Joints

23 Saddle side-to-side and back-and-forth movements (biaxial); articular surfaces concave in one direction and convex in opposite direction (CMC of thumb)


25 Synovial Joints

26 Ball and socket movement in 3 planes (triaxial); ball like surface fits into a cuplike depression (shoulder and hip)


28 Synovial Joints

29 Components of Synovial Joints
articular cartilage: covers surfaces of articulating bones but does not bind them together articular capsule: surrounds the articular surfaces and encloses the joint cavity outer layer (fibrous capsule): attached to the periosteum of articulating bones at a variable distance from the edge of the articulating cartilage inner layer (synovial membrane): secretes synovial fluid which lubricates the joint and provides nourishment for the articular cartilage

30 Components of Synovial Joints
joint (synovial) cavity: enclosed space that surrounds the 2 articulating surfaces; contains the slippery lubricating fluid called synovial fluid ligaments: thickened collagenous bands connecting bone to bone extracapsular ligaments are outside of the articular capsule (MCL, LCL) intracapsular ligaments directly attach the 2 articulating surfaces (ACL, PCL)

31 Components of Synovial Joints
articular discs (menisci): pads of fibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones; help maintain the stability of a joint and direct the flow of synovial fluid to areas of greatest friction; not all synovial joints have them

32 Components of Synovial Joints
bursae: saclike structures that contain synovial fluid to help reduce friction between: skin and bone tendons and bones muscles and bones ligaments and bones



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