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Kidneys and Adrenal Glands

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Presentation on theme: "Kidneys and Adrenal Glands"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kidneys and Adrenal Glands
Department of Regional Anatomy and Operative Surgery

2 Position, relation Structure Blood supply Lymphatic drainage Innervations

3 Position Retroperitoneal Upper poles T12 vertebra Lower poles
L3 vertebra Right is lower than left

4 Cadaveric kidneys

5 Surface Projection of kidney

6 Renal Angle Tenderness or percussing pain caused by kidney disease is localized here

7 Neighbor of Kidney


9 Anterior Surface of the kidney


11 Posterior Surface

12 Costodiaphragmatic recess of the pleural cavity

13 Renal hilum, Renal sinus and Renal pedicle
cortex Renal pyramid Renal column Renal sinus calyx Renal hilum papilla Renal pedicle



16 From anterior to posterior
renal vein renal artery renal pelvis From above downwards the renal artery

17 Hydronephrosis

18 renal artery T11

19 Renal artery

20 Vascular renal segment
Superior (apical) Anterior superior (upper) posterior Anterior inferior (middle) Inferior (lower)

21 variation of renal artery

22 Variation of Renal Artery

23 Renal veins


25 Aorta-renal artery-segmental artery-lobar artery-interlobar artery-arcuate artery-interlobulor artery-afferent arteriole-glomerulus (capillaries)-efferent arteriole-peritubular capillaries and vasa recta-interlobular vein-arcuate vein-interlobar vein-renal vein-interior vena cava

26 Renal Capsule Renal fascia Adipose capsule Fibrous capsule

27 Renal fascia


29 Fibrous capsule Adipose capsule Perirenal fat Pararenal fat



32 Fibrous Capsule

33 Ureter

34 Ureter is divided into 3 parts:
①abdominal part ②pelvis part ③intramural part

35 28 to 34 cm 3 narrowing sites the pelviureteric junction crossing the pelvic brim traversing the bladder wall



38 Horseshoe kidney

39 Suprarenal Gland

40 Endocrine gland T11 level Right is triangular Left is semi-lunar

41 tail of pancreas & spleen vessel
Relation Left right anterior superior stomach liver inferior tail of pancreas & spleen vessel posterior diaphragm medial abdominal aorta Inferior vena cava


43 Artery of Adrenal Gland



46 Veins of adrenal gland Left suprarenal vein, into the left renal vein
Right suprarenal vein, into the inferior vena cava



49 Anterior transperitoneal approach
incision Posterior retroperitoneal approach Anterior transperitoneal approach

50 Case A A 55-year-old woman was found rolling on her kitchen floor, crying out from agonizing pain in her abdomen. The pain came in waves and extended from the right loin to the groin and to the front of the right thigh. An anteroposterior radiograph of the abdomen revealed a calculus in the right ureter.

51 Question What causes the pain when a ureteral calculus is present?
Why is the pain felt in such an extensive area? Where does one look for the course of the ureter in a radiograph? Where along the ureter is a calculus likely to be held up?

52 Case B An explorer in the Amazon jungle was found alive after having lost contact with the outside world for six months. On physical examination, he was found to be in an emaciated condition. On palpation of the abdomen, a rounded, smooth swelling appeared in the right loin at the end of inspiration. On expiration, the swelling moved upward and could no longer be felt. What anatomical structure could produce such a swelling?

53 Case C An intravenous pyelogram revealed that a patient’s left kidney was in its normal position, but the right kidney was situated in front of the right sacroiliac joint. Can you explain this on embryological grounds?

54 Case D An examination of a patient revealed that she had a horseshoe kidney. What anatomical structure prevents a horseshoe kidney from ascending to a level above the umbilicus?

55 Case E An intravenous pyelogram revealed that the calyces and pelvis of a patient’s right kidney were grossly dilated (a condition known as hydronephrosis). What embryological anomaly may be responsible for this condition?

56 Case F Which congenital anomaly of the ureter is likely to present as a case of urinary incontinence?

57 operation procedure of kidney transplant

58 nephrectomy For a nephrectomy, the kidney commonly is exposed in the loin. After an oblique incision midway between the twelfth rib and the iliac crest, the posterior free border of the external oblique is identified, and divided to reveal the peritoneum, which is pushed forward to reveal the renal fascia. The subcostal nerve and vessels are preserved; the renal fascia is opened; and the kidney exposed. Care must be taken not to damage the pleura, since it is separated from the upper pole of the kidney only by the diaphragm. Posterior surgical approach Since the kidneys lie in part above the twelfth rib, a direct posterior approach might pass first into the thorax, perforating the pleural cavity. A posterior approach to the kidney also puts at risk the subcostal and iliohypogastric nerves which pass laterally behind the kidney.

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