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Joints and Skeletal Articulations

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Presentation on theme: "Joints and Skeletal Articulations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints and Skeletal Articulations

2 Joints (Articulations) - know
Articulation – site where two or more bones meet Functions of joints Give the skeleton mobility Hold the skeleton together Joints are a weak part of the skeleton and are often injured

3 Classification of Joints: Structural - know
Structural classification focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present The three structural classifications are: Fibrous (cranial bones) Cartilaginous (ribs – sternum) Synovial (knee)

4 Classification of Joints: Functional - know
Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint The three functional classes of joints are: Synarthroses – immovable (cranial bones) Amphiarthroses – slightly movable (vertebrae) Diarthroses – freely movable (knee) We will discuss joints based on structural classification:

5 1. Fibrous Joints (structural classification) - know
The bones are joined by fibrous tissues There is no joint cavity Most are immovable There are three types – sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

6 a. Fibrous Joints: Sutures - know
Occur between the bones of the skull *Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with connective tissue fibers* Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth Skull bones fuse and are called synostoses Begins as early as age 10-15, generally complete by age 30-50

7 Fibrous Structural Joints: Sutures - example
Figure 8.1a

8 b. Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses - know
*Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament* Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable Examples include the connection between the tibia and fibula, and the radius and ulna b. Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses - know

9 Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses - example
Figure 8.1b

10 c. Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses - know
The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament c. Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses - know

11 2. Cartilaginous Joints (structural classification) - know
Articulating bones are united by cartilage *Lack a joint cavity* Two types – synchondroses and symphyses 2. Cartilaginous Joints (structural classification) - know

12 a. Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses - understand
A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones All synchondroses are synarthrotic (immovable) Examples include: Epiphyseal plates of children Joint between the costal cartilage of the 1st rib and the sternum

13 Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses - example
Figure 8.2a, b

14 b. Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses - understand
Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage Amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) joints designed for strength and flexibility Examples include intervertebral joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis (expansion in female for childbirth)

15 Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses - example

16 3. Synovial Joints (structural classification) - know
Most common *Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity* All are diarthroses (freely movable) Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body (regardless of size!)

17 Synovial Joints: General Structure - understand
All synovial joints have: Articular cartilage Joint (synovial) cavity Articular capsule Synovial fluid Reinforcing ligaments

18 Synovial Joints: General Structure - example
Cadaver dissection

19 Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures - know
These friction-reducing structures are found in synovial joints and are common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together: Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

20 Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures – understand complexity

21 Synovial Joints: Stability - understand
Stability is determined by: Articular surfaces – shape determines what movements are possible Ligaments – unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion Muscle tone Tendons of muscles cross the joint and help stabilize it The tendons are kept tight by muscle tone

22 Synovial Joints: Movement - know
The two muscle attachments across a joint are: Origin – attachment to the immovable bone Insertion – attachment to the movable bone Described as movement along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes

23 Synovial Joints: Range of Motion - know
Nonaxial – gliding movements only Uniaxial – movement in one plane Biaxial – movement in two planes Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes Synovial Joints: Range of Motion - know

24 1. Gliding Movements - understand
One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface Examples – intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae 1. Gliding Movements - understand

25 Angular Movement – know – (important slide!)
Flexion — bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint Extension — reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion — up and down movement of the foot Abduction — movement away from the midline Adduction — movement toward the midline Circumduction — movement describes a cone in space

26 Articulations

27 Gliding Movement – know (be able to identify)

28 Angular Movement – know (be able to identify)

29 Angular Movement – know (be able to identify)

30 Angular Movement – know (be able to identify)

31 Rotation – know (be able to identify)
The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples Between atlas and axis Hip and shoulder joints

32 Special Movements – know (be able to identify)
Supination and pronation Inversion and eversion Protraction and retraction Elevation and depression Opposition Special Movements – know (be able to identify)

33 Special Movements – know (be able to identify)

34 Special Movements – know (be able to identify)

35 Special Movements – know (be able to identify)
Figure 8.6c

36 Special Movements – know (be able to identify)
Figure 8.6d

37 Special Movements – know (be able to identify)

38 How joints are classified
Examples Link to table of joints Medical school site: Joints Arthritis Foundation Website

39 Types of Joints: examples
Various kinds of joints. Fibrous: A, syndesmosis (tibiofibular); B, suture (skull). Cartilaginous: C, symphysis (vertebral bodies); D, synchondrosis (first rib and sternum). Synovial: E, condyloid (wrist); F, gliding (radioulnar); G, hinge or ginglymus (elbow); H, ball and socket (hip); I, saddle (carpometacarpal of thumb); J, pivot (atlantoaxial).

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