Presentation on theme: "Links between youth employment, education and sexual reproductive health Dr. Frank Anthony Minister of Culture, Youth and Sport."— Presentation transcript:
Links between youth employment, education and sexual reproductive health Dr. Frank Anthony Minister of Culture, Youth and Sport
Youth Population Today, 27% of the world’s population is between the ages of 10–24 years In a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, there are 5 times the number of people <15 years than over 55 In many developing countries, young people make up 25–30% of the population
Youth Population by Regions (millions) Regions20062025 ( Projections) Africa305424 Asia1,0871,063 North America7174 South America161165 Oceania88 Europe140111 World17731845
Impact of population changes 1.Currently it is a challenge to meet the education and employment needs of the existing population globally. 2. With projected increases in population these challenges will become more acute.
Life transition from adolescence to adulthood Education Health Family formation Empowerment Employment
Improvement in Education Most countries mandate education up to age 14 years. There has been an increase in secondary school enrolment: This has had a positive impact on adolescents especially girls. Gender1980Present Boys54%63% Girls44%56%
Health Can engaged in risky behaviors with negative consequences on health – Substance abuse ( alcohol, drugs, cigarettes) – Sex ( Child abuse, teen pregnancy) – STI – CNCD ( Inactive lifestyle)
Adolescent Pregnancy Each year an estimated 14 million adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth.
Adolescent fertility rates in the Caribbean 2005-2010
Adolescent Pregnancy Infant and under five mortality 1 million babies born to adolescent mothers will not make it to their first birthday. Several hundred thousands more will be dead by age 5 » Giving Girls Today and Tomorrow. Breaking the Cycle of Adolescent Pregnancy.
Pregnancy - the number 1 killer of adolescent girls. Each year at least 70,000 die. At least 2 million more are left with chronic illness or disabilities that may bring them lifelong suffering, shame and abandonment. 2.2 – 4 million adolescents resort to unsafe abortions. 99% of maternal deaths occur in the developing world of these 74% are preventable. » Giving Girls Today and Tomorrow. Breaking the Cycle of Adolescent Pregnancy.
% adolescents aged 13-15 that had sexual intercourse before age 14 - among those who ever had sex PAHO Database of GSHS
Multiple partnerships: Percentage of adolescents aged 13-15 who ever had sexual intercourse with two or more people during their life PAHO Database of GSHS
Emerging trends Multiple sexual partners This can increase the risk of HIV and STIs. Delay in the age of marriage. – Girls in secondary school are more likely to begin child rearing much latter than girls without schooling. – Overall delay in marriage have not led to a delay in sexual initiation. Students are less likely to have had sex than non students.( BSS) Students are more likely to use contraceptives than non students.(BSS) First sex is more likely to occur before marriage.
Emerging trends Rise in out of wedlock births Rise in clandestine abortions. Education helps to empower women in the labor market. SHR Education ( including options of contraception) at school helps to empower women on choices.
Power of Education For Girls Helps girls staying in school longer. Help to postpone marriage. Delay family formation Empowered to make the right choices on SRH including contraception options. Reduce pregnancy related deaths. Empowered young women to be more economically independent.
Recommendations Provide more SRH education in schools (especially secondary schools). Provide universal access to SRH services to the youth population. Create more youth friendly spaces to provide information to the youth population on SRH. The Health System must provide SRH services to young people as part of the essential package of services. Current laws that are barriers to health systems providing these services must be amended. Sustain programs on HIV/STI ( despite funding cuts). Introduce new programs to tackle CNCD ( to teach physical literacy at schools)
Education and Youth Employment Education – helps young people to be more successful in the labor market. – Increase potential productivity and employability. – Strong linkage between educational attainment and employment outcome. – Higher education gives a person a comparative advantage in the labor market. – Persons with primary education are usually more vulnerable.
Youth employment Global youth unemployment rate will rose from 12.6% 2010 to 12.7% in 2011. 75 million young people globally are unemployed. Global youth unemployment rates are larger than that of older groups. Rates of female unemployment rates are higher than male unemployment.
Youth Employment Need to focus on the relevance of education that is provided. – Are our schools preparing students for the world of work? – Skills mismatch what is taught and what is needed. – Years of training ( Primary, secondary, tertiary) Universal Primary Education ( achieved) Need to set new goal of Universal Secondary Education. – Expansion of tertiary education Migration ( Brain drain) Absorption of tertiary graduates into the workforce
Youth Employment Expanding skills training opportunities for disadvantage youth. National skills strategies ( need to include disadvantage youth) Packaging skills training with pro poor programs. Making micro financing available. Expanding access to traditional apprenticeships. Facilitating entrepreneurship.
Recommendations Provide second chance education programs for those with low or no foundation skills. Remove barriers that limit access to secondary school. ( Universal secondary education) Give urban poor access to skills training for better jobs. Create programs that target youth in deprived rural areas.
Recommendations Link skills with social protection for the poorest youth. Prioritize training for disadvantage young women. Harness the possibilities of technology to create new job opportunities. Strengthen data collection. Mobilize resources to meet the training needs of disadvantage youths.