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Protecting against sexually transmitted diseases & AIDS CHAPTER 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Protecting against sexually transmitted diseases & AIDS CHAPTER 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protecting against sexually transmitted diseases & AIDS CHAPTER 11

2 Objectives  Describe the impact of sexually transmitted diseases on society  List the risk factors for contracting an STD  ID the causative agent, symptoms, & treatments for the following diseases: trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, pubic lice, scabies, and AIDS  Describe the importance of testing for HIV infection & the proper testing procedures  ID several “safer sex” practices  Describe the importance of effective communication in reducing the risk of STDs & AIDS

3 STDs aka STIs  W.H.O. estimates 16 million people in the US acquire an STD ea. Year  8 million of those people are under 25 years old  Estimated yearly # of STD cases in the US  Trichomoniasis 7.4 million  Genital warts (HPV) 5.5 million  Chlamydia 1 million  Herpes 1 million  Gonorrhea 350,000  HIV/AIDS 55,000  Syphilis 37,000  Acute hepatitis B 8,000  Most commonly reported STD in US = Chlamydia  In nearly 1/3 of all cases it occurs simultaneously with gonorrhea

4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases  trichomoniasis trichomoniasis  Chlamydia Chlamydia  Gonorrhea – aka “The Clap”” Gonorrhea  Genital warts Genital warts  Syphilis Syphilis  Genital herpes in men, in womenin menin women  Pubic lice Pubic lice  HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS  Molluscum contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum  Hepatitis B Hepatitis B  Scabies Scabies Infections passed from person to person via sexual contact

5 Cost of STDs  Economic  Disability, medical treatments, etc  Emotional  Suffering due to infection  Disappointment due to infertility due to infection  Physical  Infertility  Predisposition to cervical cancer for women who acquire HPV infection  Permanent infections (HIV, herpes

6 Risk Factors for STDs  Multiple sexual partners  False sense of safety – I’m using contraception….there’s antibiotics  Absence of signs & symptoms –  HIV infected people may have mild or no symptoms for years  1 study showed  8% of college students were unaware they were infected with chlamydia  1.5% were unaware they were infected with gonorrhea  Untreated conditions  Failure to get treatment/be compliant with treatment  Impaired judgment – drugs/alcohol, mental impairment  Lack of immunity – HIV & Herpes  Body piercing (particularly of the genitals, nipple, tongue & lip)  Value judgments – negative attitudes about being “dirty”  Denial - “he/she looks too clean cut to have an STD”

7 Agents that cause common STD’s  Bacteria  Chlamydia  Gonorrhea  Syphilis  Viruses  Genital herpes  Anogenital warts  HIV/AIDS  Hepatitis  Molluscum contagiousum  Protozoa  vaginitis  Insects  Lice (crabs)  Mites (scabies)

8 Testing for HIV  Not everyone has to be tested  Starts with a counseling session  Common test = blood test; urine test is less common  Those with a reasonable risk of exposure should be tested  Males that had unprotected sex w/ other males  Those who had unprotected sex w/someone known to be infected  Those who Had a sexually transmitted disease  Those who had sex with w/ someone whose AIDS risky behaviors are unknown  Those who had several sexual partners  Those who shared needles/syringes to inject drugs

9 Reducing the US STD epidemic  Greatest concerns = HPV, HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, gonorrhea b/c they affect millions & ARE TREATABLE  Step 1 – treat patient  Step 2 – patient notifies partners of infection & encourages treatment  Not very successful  Better option- patient receives antibiotics to hand to their partners directly without requiring that they seek medical support

10 Safer Sex Practices  Abstinence = BEST way to reduce risk  Use condoms with spermicides

11 Barriers to safer sex  Denial that there is a risk  Believing the campus community is insulated from STDs  Feeling guilty & uncomfortable about being sexual  Succumbing to social & peer pressure to be sexual

12 Value of effective communication in reducing spread of STDs & HIV  The pressure to be sexual early in a relationship, before the partners know each other well enough to talk about their past sexual experiences, may force partners to deny there may be a risk.  Postpone sexual interaction by saying” I’d like to be close to you, but I’m not ready to have sex until ….  we get to know each other better  We are married  We are engaged  We ……?  If partner is offended by the conversation, it is prudent to postpone sexual interaction until the relationship has progressed to a deeper level  Complications: drugs, alcohol, other impairments

13 Review 1  Sexually transmitted diseases are infections passed from person to person, most frequently by sexual contact  Millions of sexually transmitted infections occur each year in the US  STDs are epidemic in the US because people are uninformed about them, because they engage in high risk behaviors and because vaccines and cures (for several) are unavailable  The most common STDs in the US are trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, genital warts, pubic lice and AIDS.  Preventing STD’s involves supporting public health efforts to inform the populace about STDs and their prevention and treatment. It also requires individuals to practice safer sex and to comply with treatment when they are infected.  Prevention is the key.

14 Additional resources  STD quiz – only 13 questions – give it a shot! STD

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