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1 COMMUNICATION SKILLS. 2 RAPPORT The positive relationship between interviewer and child that sets the tone for the interview and helps increase both.

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Presentation on theme: "1 COMMUNICATION SKILLS. 2 RAPPORT The positive relationship between interviewer and child that sets the tone for the interview and helps increase both."— Presentation transcript:


2 2 RAPPORT The positive relationship between interviewer and child that sets the tone for the interview and helps increase both the amount and the accuracy of the information provided.



5 5 COMMUNICATION SKILLS _ must be integrated within the interview structure _ can only be acquired through practical training and hands on experience

6 6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS § verbal or non-verbal behaviour of interviewer § very little content § recognises child’s efforts § shows empathy § provides feedback that interviewer is listening and understanding

7 7 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS q“Mm-hmmm” q Looks of concern q Head nod q Smiles q “Oh” q “I see”

8 8 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS qwill depend on age and social development of child qyoung children won’t respond to subtle cues (raised eyebrows) but require more overt and effusive responses qmust always be neutral qmust not in any way reinforce any particular statement child has made

9 9 A descriptive statement is a non-evaluative comment that describes the present situation. L “You look like you're a little nervous.” L “I noticed you smiled when you spoke about your brother.” L “I see you’re wearing a coat today.” L “It looks like you’re thinking hard about that question.” DESCRIPTIVE STATEMENTS

10 10 ¦ promotes non- threatening nature of interview ¦ keeps attention focused ¦ encourages further elaboration ¦ reassures interviewer’s involvement FUNCTIONS OF DESCRIPTIVE STATEMENTS

11 11 SILENCE s creates anxiety s increases stress s use descriptive statements to reduce anxiety  young children : a statement about what they are doing may be comforting e.g. “That’s an interesting drawing” s older children: a statement can be used:  to show silence is acceptable e.g. “I see you’re thinking quite hard about that question.”  to redirect attention to a less threatening topic e.g. “Maybe you can tell me about that later, and we can talk about…”

12 12 DESCRIPTIVE STATEMENTS V information must match child’s ability V preschool children: convey only one concept per sentence V age-appropriate vocabulary must be used

13 13  repeats all or part of what the child has just said C does not change the content of the statement é Child: I got very scared when it got dark. Interviewer: The darkness scared you. é Child: It was really neat when she let me go out. Interviewer: You liked it when she let you go out. REFLECTIVE STATEMENTS

14 14 REFLECTIVE STATEMENTS P demonstrate acceptance P show interest P convey understanding P offer an opportunity for agreement/ disagreement P provide an opportunity for elaboration

15 15 REFLECTIVE STATEMENTS P can be used when interviewer unsure about meaning P repeating statement offers child opportunity to clarify

16 16 REFLECTIVE STATEMENTS Reflective statements can be used to direct interview in a particular direction: “I get scared when he comes to visit, but then Mom gets him to leave me alone and we do something fun.” é he scares you when he visits (what is scary) é mom gets him to leave you alone (what does mom do) é you do something fun with mom (activities mom provides)

17 17 Praise Statements Praise is a statement that indicates approval of the child. w “That’s hard to remember, but I like the way you are trying.” w “It’s great that you’ve been sitting so quietly while we talk.” w “You’re doing a good job of explaining this to me.”

18 18 Praise Statements Praise must be used very carefully: _ perceived as insincere _ can be used as form of suggestion praise must specify what interviewer is encouraging and must not relate to content of statement

19 19 Praise Statements Praise statements have the following effects: w strengthen rapport w increase information-giving w reassure that information is acceptable

20 20 QUESTIONS A question is a direct way of soliciting specific information, and makes a specific demand upon the child. 2 “When do you visit grandpa?” 2 “What dress were you wearing?” 2 “Where was the car?”

21 21 COMMANDS A statement which provides no other appropriate option to the child except to comply with the instruction.  “Tell me what your name is.” w “Describe what he was wearing.” w “Look at this picture.”

22 22 COMMANDS M should be kept to a minimum M should only be used when very concrete information required M once a child has complied, rewards child’s efforts M can be used to let child know interviewer pleased with behaviour M increases likelihood that child will respond appropriately in future

23 23 SUMMARY STATEMENTS H used to review material already covered H interviewer concisely describes the information given by the child. ç “You’ve told me about how the doctors and nurses scare you and that your mom can make you feel better. I’d like to hear more about what your mom does to help you.” ç “We’ve talked about your grades and your teacher. What is one of your favourite things to do with your friends at school?”

24 24 CRITICAL STATEMENTS Verbalizations that communicate disapproval of the child or the child's behaviour. H “Stop moving around your chair and answer that question” H “That was pretty dumb of you, wasn’t it?” H “I don’t think you’re trying hard enough right now.”

25 25 CRITICAL STATEMENTS ` not productive ` should be carefully avoided ` include: w directions to stop an activity w insults to the child w statements that imply the child is behaving inappropriately

26 26 CRITICAL STATEMENTS Critical statements have the following effects: « foster negative reactions (frustration, anger) « decrease co-operation « destroy rapport

27 27 INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOUR Can be prevented by: - setting ground rules at beginning of interview - praising frequently reinforces acceptable behaviour

28 28 INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOUR The interviewer has the following options: Ø ignore the behaviour Øsuggest a more appropriate behaviour Øphysically intervene Øend interview

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