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Presentation on theme: "BREATHING EMERGENCIES"— Presentation transcript:



3 The Breathing Process Air (oxygen) into nose and mouth---passes through pharynx----travels through the trachea--- lungs---blood---delivered to brain, organs, muscles (provides energy)

4 Brain is very sensitive to oxygen starvation
BRAIN and OXYGEN Brain is very sensitive to oxygen starvation Brain cells start to die in 4-6 minutes without oxygen

5 TIME FRAME 0 minutes: breathing stops, heart will soon stop beating
4-6 minutes: brain damage possible 6-10 minutes: brain damage likely Over 10 minutes: irreversible brain damage certain

6 BREATHING Brain controls breathing
Adjusts rate and depth of breaths based on O2 and CO2 levels Requires respiratory, circulatory, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems to work together

An obstructed airway (choking) Illness, such as pneumonia Respiratory conditions (asthma, emphysema) Electrocution Shock Drowning Heart attack or heart disease Chest or lung injury Allergic reactions (food, insects) Drugs Poisoning Hyperventilation

8 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS Most common type of breathing emergency Injury Illness Excitement Anxiety

Obvious Cannot catch their breath or gasp for air Grunting, wheezing, gurgling, shrill sounds Breaths unusually fast, slow, deep, or shallow (slow= less than 8 breaths per minute)

10 S/S Respiratory Distress
Skin Unusually moist and flushed Pale, ashen, or bluish (cyanosis) Symptoms Dizzy, lightheaded, painful, tingling in lips, hands, or feet

11 Specific Types of RD Asthma Emphysema Hyperventilation Anaphylaxis

12 Care for RD Initial assessment Summon EMS
Help the victim rest comfortably Physical exam SAMPLE history Reassure the victim Assist with medication Monitor vital signs

13 RESPIRATORY ARREST Breathing stops Illness Injury Obstructed airway
*heart will stop beating, organs will begin to fail

14 RESCUE BREATHING Breathing air into a person to supply him or her with the O2 needed to survive

15 STEPS Determine LOC—unresponsive
Open airway and look, listen, feel for breathing No breathing Give 2 slow breaths Check for pulse Look for severe bleeding

16 RESCUE BREATHING Keep airway open 1 breath every 5 seconds Every minute re-check pulse

17 When to stop rescue breathing:
Victim breathes on own Victim has no pulse—CPR Someone with more training than you arrives You are too exhausted to continue The scene becomes unsafe

18 Special considerations:
Air in stomach Vomiting Mouth-to-nose breathing Mouth-to-stoma breathing Victims with dentures Suspected spine injury

19 Infants and Children Faster breath rate and pulse rate than adults
Rescue breaths are faster Less air in each breath Head-tilt is less Cover mouth and nose Infants: 1 breath every 3 seconds Children: 1 breath every 5 seconds

20 Most common cause of respiratory emergency
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTIONS Most common cause of respiratory emergency TWO causes: anatomical or mechanical Partial or Complete

Can still move some air in and out of the lungs Person can still cough and/or speak Person may clutch throat (universal sign) Encourage them to keep coughing and summon EMS if it continues

Unable to speak, cough, cry, or breathe CALL 911 Heimlich Maneuver/ Abdominal thrusts until the obstruction is clear (or they become unconscious)

23 Unconscious Choking Adult/Child
Lay the person down Open the airway by lifting the jaw up Finger sweep Open the airway—head-tilt/chin-lift Give 2 slow breaths If air does not go in: Reposition (retilt) the head

24 If air still does not go in:
Give up to 5 abdominal thrusts or chest thrusts** Do a finger sweep Give 2 slow breaths (reposition if necessary) Repeat until object is expelled

25 Chest Thrusts Middle of the sternum
Person is too large or they are pregnant Compress 1 ½ to 2 inches 5 quick thrusts

26 Conscious Choking Infant
Call 911 Alternate 5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts until the object comes out

27 Unconscious Choking Infant
1. 2 slow breaths (they don’t go in) 2. Reposition head 3. 2 more slow breaths (if they don’t go in, assume airway is obstructed) 4. Give 5 back blows 5. Give 5 chest thrusts 6. Do a foreign body check 7. Open the airway 8. Give 2 slow breaths (if they don’t go in, repeat steps)


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