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Alkane Soup!.

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Presentation on theme: "Alkane Soup!."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alkane Soup!

2 Hydrocarbons A molecule containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
When we look at molecules, BLACK always means CARBON, and WHITE (and sometimes grey) means HYDROGEN. Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic molecules

3 Alkanes CnH2n+2 Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons
All single bonds – carbon is bonded to four other atoms Alkanes are aliphatic – they form chains and non-aromatic rings (we’ll learn about aromatic molecules later) Alkanes, like other hydrocarbon chains, form a homologous series This means that adding a single carbon to the chain increases the number of hydrogens by a definite number In the case of alkanes, # hydrogens = (2 x # carbons) + 2 CnH2n+2

4 Fractional Distillation
Boiling points of alkanes increase with size, so refineries can use this property to separate crude oil into its components Components: < 20oC: Small gaseous alkanes, usually further refined or liquefied 20-100oC: Slightly larger, used as solvents or further refinement Up to 200oC: Straight-run gasoline – this gets refined and sold as common fuel Up to 300oC: Large alkanes, used for kerosene and jet fuel Up to 400oC: Larger alkanes, used as oil and diesel fuel Remaining unboiled liquids are used as lubricating oils Solid residues are used for asphalt, tar, and paraffin wax.

5 Uses of Alkanes Methane (natural gas) Butane lighters
Automotive and industrial lubricants Vaseline (also a lubricant) Commercial Gasoline (petrol) Other Fuels (propane tanks) Tar (used in asphalt) Candle wax

6 How do we name them? So, how did we come to call them methane, propane, butane, octane…? IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) devised a system to name organic molecules It uses a set of suffixes and prefixes to identify all organic molecules, from the simplest to the ridiculously complex It can get quite complex for very large molecules, which is why many compounds still use common names

7 The Name Think of naming a molecule as just like naming a person:
First Name(1) + Middle Names(2) + Family Name(3) Molecule: Branch Prefixes(2) + Root Name (1) + Family Suffixes(3) Alkanes all have the family suffix –ane.

8 IUPAC Nomenclature There are lots of rules, but we’re going to learn them as we go. When identifying a hydrocarbon, first find the longest chain of carbons that are bonded to each other (no breaks in the chain) The longest chain ISN’T always the one going straight across! 3 8

9 Root Name The longest carbon chain is known as the parent chain. The root name tells you how many carbons are in the parent chain. Each prefix below refers to a number of carbons: # of Carbons Prefix 1 Meth- 2 Eth- 3 Prop- 4 But- 5 Pent- 6 Hex- 7 Hept- 8 Oct-

10 Methane Ethane Propane The First Six Alkanes Butane Hexane Pentane

11 Practice makes Perfect!
You need to practice naming lots of molecules! Complete Alkane Worksheet If you have any questions, make sure you ask me! Do the following questions: (for homework) P. 330 (#1, 2, 4) and p. 332 (all 4)

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