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Child Development Theorists: Lev Vygotsky & Erik Erikson

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development Theorists: Lev Vygotsky & Erik Erikson"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development Theorists: Lev Vygotsky & Erik Erikson
By: Sarah Turner and Emily Downs

2 Erik Erikson Born 1902 in Germany Died 1994 Enrolled in art school
Taught art to American children who had come to Germany for Freudian training Admitted into Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute In 1933 came to U.S. and became Boston’s first child analyst Obtained position at Harvard Medical School Later on became clinician and psychiatric consultant

3 Erik Erikson’s Theory 1st stage: Trust vs. Mistrust
2nd stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 3rd stage: Initiative vs. Guilt 4th stage: Industry vs. Inferiority 5th stage: Identity vs. Identity Confusion 6th stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation 7th stage: Integrity vs. Despair

4 Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth- 1 or 2 years A child needs to experience trust in early life If a child learns to mistrust more than trust, the child will become frustrated, withdrawn, suspicious and will lack self-confidence

5 Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
2-3 years old Parents need to be supportive so the child can develop a sense of self-control without a loss of self-esteem If a child experiences an overly controlling parent they will not be able to do anything on their own

6 Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
3-5 years old Develops sense of responsibility Encouraged children to be as independent as possible Set expectations that are in line with child’s individual abilities Key strength that grows out of the stage is purpose

7 Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
5-12 years old Time of great adventure Problems arise when a child feels inadequate Teacher or parent who overemphasizes mistakes can make child not want to learn Essential for child to learn to do things with others

8 Stage 5: Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Adolescence Seek true identity Either follow a crowd to be a part of something or develop sense of individuality

9 Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adulthood Only able to form intimate feelings with others if they succeed in finding their identity (stage 5) Either find intimacy in partner, friendship or family or they lead a life of isolation

10 Stage 7: Integrity vs. Despair
Late adulthood Either feel like they have contributed to society or haven’t Decides whether elderly person will be happy or discontent with life

11 Lev Vygotsky Born in 1896 in Byelorussia
Graduated from Moscow University Studied literature and psychology Worked at Institute of Psychology in Moscow Died of tuberculosis at age 38, in 1934

12 Sociocultural (Social Development Theory)
Focuses on how values, beliefs, skills and traditions are transmitted to the next generation Fundamentally cultural There is a zone of proximal development that reveals a pattern Consciousness and cognition is the end product of social behavior “More Knowledgeable Other”

13 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The variation between a student being able to perform a task independently or being able to do it will adult/peer help

14 More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)
Refers to anyone whose learning/cognition level is above the student’s level Could be a parent, teacher, coach, older sibling, tutor, computer etc.

15 Social Interaction Social learning precedes development
“Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first between people and then inside the child.” (said by Vygotsky)

16 Comparison Erik Erikson Lev Vygotsky
Believed in connection between culture and development? Main Focus Famous For Erik Erikson Yes, he came to find that culture had a massive influence on behavior. He focused his cultural studies on the external world, including things such as wars in his studies. He focused on the stages a person goes through in life and their outcomes. The stages focus on behavior. He was famous for his studies on behavior and creation of the stages of behavior a person goes through in life. Lev Vygotsky Particularly believed in interpersonal connection between the child and other important people. Believed that social interaction (cultural) shaped how a child will learn and what they will be able to learn. He was famous for coming up with the zone of proximal development and studying the effects of culture on learning.

17 Bibliography Arlene, By. "Erik Erikson Stages of Development." Google. Web. 01 Dec < did erikson believe in connection between culture and learning?&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us>. "Definitions of Sociocultural Theory." The University of New Mexico. Web. 30 Nov < "Psychology History." Welcome to Muskingum University. Web. 16 Nov < ycweb/history/erikson.htm>. "Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning Theories." At Learning Theories. Web. 30 Nov <

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