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The Safe Foodhandler Instructor Notes

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1 The Safe Foodhandler Instructor Notes
At every step in the flow of food from receiving through service, foodhandlers can contaminate food. Good personal hygiene is a critical protective measure against foodborne illness. You can minimize the risk of foodborne illness by establishing a personal hygiene program that spells out specific hygiene policies.You must also train your employees on these policies and enforce them.

2 Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge
True or False: During handwashing, foodhandlers must vigorously scrub their hands and arms for five seconds 2. True or False: Gloves should be changed before beginning a different task 3. True or False: Foodhandlers must wash their hands after smoking 4. True or False: A foodhandler diagnosed with shigellosis cannot continue to work at an establishment while he or she has the illness 5. True or False: Hand antiseptics should only be used before handwashing Instructor Notes Answers: False True 4-2

3 How Foodhandlers Contaminate Food
Foodhandlers can contaminate food when they: Have a foodborne illness Show symptoms of gastrointestinal illness Have infected wounds or cuts Live with, or are exposed to, a person who is ill Touch anything that may contaminate their hands Instructor Notes Even an apparently healthy person may be hosting foodborne pathogens. A person may be contagious before symptoms appear or may still have the illness for months after signs of illness have ceased. Some people carry pathogens and infect others, but never become ill themselves. They are known as “carriers.”

4 How Foodhandlers Contaminate Food
Behaviors That Can Contaminate Food A B A Scratching the scalp Running fingers through hair Wiping or touching the nose Rubbing an ear E Touching a pimple or open sore Wearing a dirty uniform Coughing or sneezing into the hand Spitting in the establishment C D B E F C G F D H Instructor Notes Thirty to 50 percent of healthy adults carry Staphylococcus aureus in their nose, and about 20 to 35 percent carry it on their skin. If these microorganisms contaminate food, the consequences can be severe. To prevent this, foodhandlers must avoid the behaviors indicated in the slide. G H

5 Components of a Good Personal Hygiene Program
Good personal hygiene includes: Maintaining personal cleanliness Wearing proper work attire Following hygienic hand practices Avoiding unsanitary habits and actions Maintaining good health Reporting illnesses Instructor Notes Maintaining personal cleanliness means bathing or showering before work. Foodhandlers must also keep their hair clean, since oily, dirty hair can harbor pathogens.

6 Handwashing (2010 update) How to Wash Hands 1 2 3
Wet hands and arms with running water as hot as you can comfortably stand. (at least 100°F/38°C) Apply soap. Use enough to build up a good lather. Vigorously scrub hands and arms for ten to fifteen seconds. Clean under fingernails and between fingers. 4 Instructor Notes Handwashing is the most important part of personal hygiene. It may seem like an obvious thing to do. Even so, many foodhandlers do not wash their hands the right way or as often as they should. You must train your foodhandlers to wash their hands and then you must monitor them. The whole process should take 20 seconds. If you are not careful, you can contaminate your hands after washing them. Consider using a paper towel to turn off the faucet and to open the door when leaving the restroom. 5 Rinse hands and arms thoroughly under running water. Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or hand dryer. Consider using a paper towel to turn off the faucet.

7 Hygienic Hand Practices: Hand Antiseptics
Must comply with Food and Drug Administration standards Should be used after handwashing (if used in the establishment) Must never be used in place of handwashing Instructor Notes Hand antiseptics reduce microorganisms on the skin. They are available in liquid and gel form. If hand antiseptics are used, foodhandlers should not touch food or food-preparation equipment until the antiseptic has dried. Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 4-8 in ServSafe Essentials.

8 Hygienic Hand Practices: When to Wash Hands
Foodhandlers must wash their hands after: Using the restroom Handling raw meat, poultry, and fish (before and after) Touching the hair, face, or body Sneezing, coughing, or using a tissue Smoking, eating, drinking, or chewing gum or tobacco

9 Hygienic Hand Practices: When to Wash Hands
Foodhandlers must wash their hands after: continued Handling chemicals that might affect food safety Taking out garbage Clearing tables or bussing dirty dishes Touching clothing or aprons Touching anything else that may contaminate hands, such as unsanitized equipment, work surfaces, or washcloths

10 Hygienic Hand Practices: Bare-Hand Contact
Bare-Hand Contact with Ready-to-Eat Food Some jurisdictions allow it but require written policies and procedures on: Employee health Handwashing Other hygienic practices Instructor Notes Proper handwashing minimizes the risk of contamination associated with bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. If bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food is allowed by your jurisdiction, you should have written policies and procedures on employee health, handwashing, and other hygiene practices. Check with your regulatory agency for requirements. Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 4-9 in ServSafe Essentials.

11 Hygienic Hand Practices: Hand Maintenance
Requirements for Foodhandlers Instructor Notes Long, false, and acrylic nails should not be worn because they may be difficult to keep clean. Some jurisdictions allow false nails if single-use gloves are worn. Nail polish can disguise dirt under nails and may flake off into food. Some jurisdictions allow polished nails if single-use gloves are worn. Cover all hand cuts and sores with clean bandages. If there is a bandage on the hand, then gloves or a finger cot should be worn at all times to protect the bandage and prevent it from falling off into food. A foodhandler with infected wounds may need to be moved to a nonfoodhandling position until it heals. The new position should not involve contact with food or food-contact surfaces. Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 4-10 in ServSafe Essentials. Keep fingernails short and clean Do not wear false nails or nail polish Bandage cuts and cover bandages

12 Hygienic Hand Practices: Gloves
Gloves used for handling food: Must never be used in place of handwashing Are for single use only Should be right for the task Must be safe, durable, and clean Must fit properly Must be used properly Instructor Notes Gloves can help keep food safe by creating a barrier between hands and food. Buy disposable gloves. Gloves used to handle food are for single use only. They should never be washed and reused. Buy the right glove for the task. Long gloves, for example should be used for mixing salads. Provide a variety of glove sizes. Gloves that are too big will not stay on the hand, and those that are too small will tear or rip easily. Consider latex alternatives for employees who are sensitive to the material. Focus on safety, durability, and cleanliness. Make sure you purchase gloves specifically designed for food contact, which include gloves bearing the NSF International certification mark.

13 Hygienic Hand Practices: Gloves
When to Change Gloves As soon as they become soiled or torn Before beginning a different task At least every four hours during continual use and more often when necessary After handling raw meat and before handling cooked or ready-to-eat food Instructor Notes Hands must be washed before putting on gloves and when changing to a new pair. When removing gloves, grasp them at the cuff and peel them off inside out over the fingers, without making contact with the palm and fingers. Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 4-11 in ServSafe Essentials.

14 Proper Work Attire Foodhandlers should:
Wear a clean hat or other hair restraint Wear clean clothing daily Remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas Remove jewelry from hands and arms Wear appropriate, clean, and closed-toe shoes B A B D C C D Instructor Notes A foodhandler’s attire plays an important role in the prevention of foodborne illness. A hair restraint will keep hair away from food and keep foodhandlers from touching it. Foodhandlers with facial hair should also wear a beard restraint. Foodhandlers must remove jewelry from hands and arms prior to preparing or serving food and when working around food-preparation areas. Jewelry may contain microorganisms and may tempt foodhandlers to touch it. Remove rings (except a plain band); bracelets (including medical information jewelry); and watches. Your company may also require the removal of other types of jewelry as well. It is important to check with your local regulatory agency for work attire requirements in your jurisdiction. These requirements should be reflected in written policies that are consistently monitored and enforced. All applicants should be made aware of these policies prior to employment. Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 4-13 in ServSafe Essentials. E E

15 Policies Regarding Eating, Drinking, and Smoking
Foodhandlers must not: Smoke, chew gum or tobacco, eat or drink When Preparing or serving food Working in food-preparation areas Working in areas used to clean utensils and equipment Instructor Notes Small droplets of saliva can contain thousands of disease-causing microorganisms. This saliva can be transferred to foodhandlers’ hands or directly to the food they are handling when they smoke, chew gum or tobacco, eat, or drink. Foodhandlers should eat, drink, chew gum, or use tobacco products only in designated areas. Check with your local regulatory agency for requirements. Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 4-14 in ServSafe Essentials.

16 Handling Employee Illnesses
IF: THEN: The foodhandler has a sore throat with fever Restrict the employee from working with or around food Exclude the employee from the establishment if you primarily serve a high-risk population Instructor Notes Foodhandlers must be encouraged to report health problems to the manager of the establishment before working. If the foodhandler becomes ill while working, he or she must immediately report their condition. If food or equipment could become contaminated, the foodhandler must stop working and see a doctor. If a foodhandler must refrigerate medication while working, and it will be stored with food, he or she must place it inside a covered, leak-proof container that is clearly labeled.

17 Handling Employee Illnesses
IF: THEN: The foodhandler has one or more of the following symptoms: Vomiting Diarrhea Jaundice Exclude the employee from the establishment Do not allow employees with vomiting or diarrhea to return to work unless they: Have been symptom-free for 24 hours or Have a written release from a medical practitioner Do not allow employees with jaundice to return to work unless they have been released by a medical practitioner

18 Handling Employee Illnesses
IF: THEN: The foodhandler has been diagnosed with a foodborne illness caused by: Salmonella Typhi Shigella spp. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli Hepatitis A virus Norovirus Exclude the employee from the establishment and notify the local regulatory agency Work with the employee’s medical practitioner and/or the local regulatory agency to determine when he or she can safely return to work Instructor Notes Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 4-16 in ServSafe Essentials. Remind participants that the Take It Back section in ServSafe Essentials (page 4-28) can be used to teach important concepts from Section 4 to their employees.

19 Apply Your Knowledge: Exclusion or Restriction?
Should you: Exclude the foodhandler from the establishment Restrict the foodhandler from working with or around food Bill, a line cook at a family restaurant has a sore throat with a fever Joe, a prep cook, has diarrhea Mary, a sous chef, has been diagnosed with hepatitis A Instructor Notes Answers: # 1: Restrict. Bill has a sore throat with fever, so he must be restricted from working with or around food. # 2: Exclude. Joe has diarrhea so he must be excluded from the establishment. Joe could be allowed to return to work when he has been symptom-free for twenty-four hours, or he has a written release from a medical practitioner. # 3: Exclude. Mary has the foodborne illness hepatitis A, so she must be excluded from the establishment and the local regulatory agency must be notified. The manager must work with Joe’s medical practitioner and/or the local regulatory agency to determine when he can safely return to work. 4-19

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