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Respiratory System Unit 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Unit 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System Unit 4

2 Review What is the difference between Ventilation and Respiration?
How are External and Internal Respiration different? Name the organs of the Upper Resp Tract. [4] What are the 3 functions of the Nasal Cavity? How many bones make up the sinuses?

3 Name the organs of the Lower Respiratory Tract. [6]
What 3 actions do the sinuses do? What is another name for the Pharynx? Name the 3 parts of the Pharynx/locations. What is another name for the voicebox?

4 What type of tissue lines the Respiratory Tract?
What’s its function? What is the flap that covers the Trachea? What is its function? What is the trachea made of? Shape? What is the name where the trachea branches into the bronchi?

5 Ventilation [Breathing]- the act of moving air in/out of the lungs
Respiration- process where ventilation occurs along with the exchange of gases in the lungs and the body tissues

6 Types of Respiration External Respiration -exchange of gases between air in lungs and blood [alveoli and pulm. capillaries] Internal Respiration -exchange of gases between the blood stream and body’s tissues

7 Upper Respiratory Tract Organs - Nose, Nasal Cavity, Sinuses, Pharynx
Lower Respiratory Tract Organs - Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, Bronchial Tree, Alveoli


9 Upper Respiratory Tract
Nose made of bone and cartilage nares/nostrils-openings guarded by hairs that filter Nasal Cavity -divided sagitally by nasal septum -lined with mucous membrane Warms air Moistens air Traps particles


11 Nasal Conchae [superior, middle, inferior turbinate]
-bony, scroll like projections on lateral wall of each cavity -increase surface area inside [helps mucous membrane] -channel and speed up airflow through nose Sinuses[paranasal] -air filled hollow spaces inside 4 bones of skull [ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary and frontal bones] - positioned around nose -lined with mucous membrane Drain fluids Decrease weight of skull Resonate the voice





16 Pharynx [throat] -3 regions: Nasopharynx-posterior to nasal cavity Oropharynx-posterior to oral cavity Laryngopharynx- posterior to larynx [voicebox] *Pseudostratified ciliated epithelial tissue lines most of tract. Cilia encourages flow of mucous -trapped particles travel down esophagus into stomach


18 Lower Respiratory Tract
Larynx [voicebox] -walls made of cartilage -Thyroid cartilage [adam’s apple] -Epiglottic cartilage- covered with mucous membrane -epiglottis blocks opening to trachea [glottis] when swallowing False Vocal cords- musc/conn. tissue; same function as epiglottis True Vocal cords- musc/elastic fibers; vibrate with air passage; helps form words




22 Trachea [windpipe] -Anterior to esophagus -4-5 inches long -Connects larynx to thoracic cavity -Divides inferiorly at an area called the carina, into R and L primary bronchi (each lung) -Lined w/ciliated mucous membrane -Made of “C”-shaped cartilage rings allowing for expansion of esophagus when consuming food -Also smooth muscle




26 Primary bronchi lead into the lungs and divide to form the bronchial tree Primary bronchi  secondary bronchi tertiary bronchi bronchioles alveolar ducts  alveoli

27 Lungs [Right and Left] -Right – 3 lobes (upper, middle, lower)
– divided by 2 fissures (horizontal b/w upper and middle lobes; oblique fissure b/w middle and lower) -Left - 2 lobes (upper, lower) – divide by oblique fissure. Lung is slightly smaller to accommodate space for the heart


29 Pleural Cavity -double-layered membrane covering -visceral pleura: inner layer on the lung surface -parietal pleura: outer layer lines the inside of the thoracic cavity -space in b/w the pleural layers filled with serous fluid to reduce friction as lungs inflate and deflate. Pleurisy- infection of the pleural layers. Reduced serous fluid and increased friction when breathing


31 -Serous fluid creates surface tension b/w the pleural layers -keeps them adhered to each other -essential for keeping the lungs inflated. When the outer pleural membrane (parietal pl.) moves outward because it is attached to the thoracic wall ,the inner pleural layer (visceral pl.) moves with it. Pneumothorax: air gets in the pleural space Atelectasis: too much air gets in the pleural space disrupting surface tension b/w the pleural layers and causes collapsed lung.




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