A Comprehensive Approach to Discipline Teach & reward appropriate behavior Active supervision Address Environment/Curricula/ Instruction Pre-Corrections/ Prompts (Verbal, Visual, Physical) Communication Re-Entry Procedures Follow-Up Respond Instruction tied to the Expectations Verbal De-Escalation (CPI Institute) Practice appropriate alternatives Hierarchy of consequences (severity, motivation) Monitor effectiveness Prevent
3 Data-Based Decision Making Did your team use Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) & Classroom-Managed Referrals (Minors) throughout the year to evaluate: your Tier 1 system & plan school-wide interventions? a student’s behavioral needs? Did your team find any limitations in using these data for decision making? Were there additional data used?
4 Clear Definitions of Problem Behaviors Does your school have a clear set of definitions for all categories available on the ODR form? Have all staff and faculty been trained on those definitions? How often? Fidelity checks? Is there a clear distinction between: Office-Managed Incidents? Teacher-Managed Incidents? Crisis/Emergency Incidents? USE YOUR DATA to identify and analyze the problems
5 Example: Using Antecedents to Intervene AntecedentPrevention Strategies Students go to their lockers to get their materials and meet their friends. Staff will be stationed in the hallway by the 7 th grade lockers to remind students to get their materials and go directly to class. Staff will hand out “Tiger Paws” to students getting their materials and going to class immediately. A 1-minute ‘warning’ bell will be initiated prior to the first period tardy bell. Tier 1 School-Wide: When the 7 th grade students arrive in the morning, they go to their lockers to get their materials and begin talking with their friends. As a result, they get to spend additional time with their peers, but are also tardy to class.
6 Example continued: Teaching What You Want to See BehaviorTeach Replacement Behavior Current Behavior: Students stay at their lockers talking to friends. As a result, they are tardy to class. Replacement Behavior: Students will be on time to class. All 7 th grade homeroom teachers will review the expectation ‘Be Responsible’ by being on time to class each morning for a week and every Monday morning thereafter. Give examples and non-examples Practice what ‘being on time’ looks like. In Language Arts, students will get in groups and write about the reasons people should be ‘on time’. Include in- school and out-of-school examples. Share with the class. All teachers will prompt students prior to the end of each class and at the end of the day to ‘be on time’.
7 Example continued: Using Consequences to Change Behavior Current Consequences Replacement Behavior Alternative Outcomes Consequences/Reinforcers Students are tardy to class. The teacher repeats the ‘Bell’ work directions. Students spend time talking to their friends and still get directions for completing their assignment. Getting to class on time. Students arriving on time to class will be given a bonus question to complete for extra credit points. The teacher will only give the directions for ‘Bell’ work once. Greeting friends concisely & getting to class on time Students arriving to class on time will earn 2 extra points to cash in at the end of the week for 10 minutes of uninterrupted free time with friends. Students overheard ending conversations quickly receive a Tiger Paw
8 How Consistent is Your Staff? Behavior is strengthened, weakened, and/or maintained through modeling Examples continued: Students may be less likely to mingle at their lockers when they see their peers earning ‘Tiger Paws’ for getting their materials and going directly to class. (weakened) Students may be more likely to get to class on time when they see their peers earning extra points and the opportunity for uninterrupted free time. (strengthened) Students may continue to be late to class when their teacher is late to class. (maintained)
9 Analyzing your ABCs Antecedent Events: What types of events tended to increase the likelihood of problem behavior occurring? What strategies did your team incorporate to prevent the problem behavior from occurring? Behavior: What did we use to determine new skills to teach? How often? (functionally equivalent replacement skills) Did we go back and check if our intervention made a difference? Consequences: What tended to maintain the problem behavior occurring? (function) What strategies did we use to change how we responded? USE YOUR DATA to identify and analyze the problems
10 Classroom and Office Responses Did both classroom (teacher) and office (administrator) responses to problem behavior: Match the severity of the offense? Address motivation (function) of the problem behavior? Align with: School-Wide expectations? Clearly defined rules? A system for teaching/rewarding expectations/rules? Include opportunities to learn/practice appropriate alternatives? Ensure effectiveness via monitoring? Is it working? USE YOUR DATA to identify and analyze the problems
11 Minor & Major Referral Forms Is documentation meaningful for problem-solving? Address district/state documentation requirements? Allow for ease in data collection? Do the forms help you answer: What behaviors we need to teach and reward? Where we should focus our intervention activities? Is there one setting that is more likely to reflect inappropriate behavior? When behaviors are most and least likely to occur? Why behavior is occurring? What motivates our student(s)? What interventions have been used? Were they effective in stopping/reducing the behavior? USE YOUR DATA to identify and analyze the problems
12 Office Discipline Referral Process Does your coherent discipline referral process: Encompass definitions, responses, & forms? Facilitate consistency in discipline across campus? Encourage teachers’ use of problem-solving process? Address communication with stakeholders, classroom re-entry procedures (follow-up)? Facilitate problem analysis and is implemented with fidelity? Avoid long delays between the notification of a misbehavior and the disciplinary action? Have a system for notifying: Parents? Staff? Students? USE YOUR DATA to identify and analyze the problems
14 Data Review How did your team score on Items 7-16 on the BoQ? What is working? What needs to be improved?
15 Related Activities Categorizing Behaviors Consequences Grid/Disciplinary Action Grid Classroom Tracking Form Effective Referral Form Coherent Discipline Referral Process You may want to revisit these activities
16 Implementation Tips (Faculty Buy-In) How will you include your faculty’s perspectives & help them feel that they will be supported with behavior management? Teach your staff about effective responses? Show your staff where they fall in a (blind) distribution of ODRs and/or Minors? Why should they discipline differently? Share success stories: “Ah-Ha” moments for faculty buy-in Consider offering an incentive to get a larger response
17 Implementation Tips Tap into your local expertise to generate more ideas on responding to problem behavior? How will you teach your staff how to use the forms? How will you send corrected forms to staff members, or send back incomplete/incorrect forms for staff to correct themselves? (teaching to mastery) How and when will you survey your staff about the effectiveness of the discipline process ? Who will create packets for substitutes & volunteers?
18 Action Plan! Refine Discipline Procedures Record action items for low-scoring Benchmarks items (7-16) Record action items to inform/involve your stakeholders (faculty, students, families) Implementation Tips may help BoQ Element: Effective Discipline Procedures