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The Lock-Out / Tag-Out Program

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Presentation on theme: "The Lock-Out / Tag-Out Program"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Lock-Out / Tag-Out Program

2 A Simple Reason Why…

3 LOTO Protects You Use proper Lock-Out / Tag-Out procedures
Please be careful when working on equipment

4 Killed By The Moving Parts Of A Saw
Case Study #1 Killed By The Moving Parts Of A Saw Narrative: An Employee Was Cleaning the Unguarded Side of an Operating Granite Saw. The Employee Was Caught in the Moving Parts Of The Saw and Pulled Into a Nip Point Between The Saw Blade and the Idler Wheel, Resulting In Fatal Injuries. Citation: Failure to Shutdown or Turn off Equipment To Perform Maintenance. 17 17 17 17

5 Circumstances of Injury How Most Injuries Occur In Order Of Occurrence
Injured by Moving Machinery Part. Made Contact With Energized Part. Injured by Physical Hazard (Heat, Chemicals). Injured by Falling Machine Part. 12 12 12 12

6 Circumstances of Injury
Activity At Time Of Accident Frequency Of Occurrence 1. Unjamming Object(S) From Equipment 2. Cleaning Equipment 3. Repairing Equipment 4. Performing Routine Maintenance 5. Installing Equipment 13 13 13 13

7 Circumstances of Injury
Activity At Time Of Accident Frequency Of Occurrence 6. Adjusting Equipment 7. Doing Set-up Work 8. Performing Electrical Work 9. Inspecting Equipment 10. Testing Materials 14 14 14 14

8 Circumstances of Injury Reasons For Equipment Not Being Turned Off
Afraid of Slow Down in Production. Afraid It Would Take Too Long. Not Required by Company Procedure. Worker Didn't Know Power Was on. Worker Didn't Know How to Turn Off. Did Not Think It Was Necessary. Task Could Not Be Done With Power Off. ON OFF SYSTEM CONTROL SWITCH 15 15 15 15

9 Circumstances of Injury Reasons For Equipment Being Turned On
Accidentally Turned on by Injured Employee Co-Worker Accidentally Turned Equipment On Equipment Moved When Jam-up Cleared Equipment Unexpectedly "Cycled" Parts Still in Motion (Coasting) ON OFF SYSTEM CONTROL SWITCH 16 16 16 16

10 Definition of Employees
Authorized Employee The Person Who Locks or Tags Out Machines To Perform Servicing or Maintenance. Affected Employee An Employee Whose Job Requires Him or Her To Operate or Use a Machine or Piece of Equipment On Which Servicing or Maintenance Is Being Performed. 20 20 20 20

11 Definitions Lock-Out / Tag-Out Lock-Out Device
The placement of a lock/tag on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to ensure that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lock and tag is removed . In addition to tag/lock out, the equipment must be blocked against motion and any residual energy removed. Lock-Out Device A device that utilizes a positive means such as a key lock to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevents the energizing of equipment Red Tag Ø      Means “Extreme Danger. Do not Operate and do not Remove." Ø      Used whenever there is a hazard or someone working on or near a piece of equipment or electrical system. Ø      Shall be used to tag out a piece of equipment or system that is unsafe to operate in its present state or condition. Ø      Must be filled out completely, including Name, Date, and Reason for Red Tag. Whenever unsafe equipment is red tagged, contact Dispatch. Notify them of the unit number, equipment failure, and that the equipment is down and red tagged. The dispatcher will enter Unit #, cause for being Red Tagged.  Unauthorized removal of a Red Tag or utilization of a system or piece of equipment TAGGED OUT will result is disciplinary action up to and including discharge.  Ø      Will be available to every TransAlta Centralia Mining employee required to work on or near equipment or facilities that when energized or operated would present a personal safety hazard. Ø      Shall be used in conjunction with a Safety Lock whenever possible. May be removed only by the individual whose name is on the tag or by the appropriate Maintenance Foreman who will determine that the condition has been corrected and that all persons are in the clear. Failure to remove a Red Tag prior to leaving the property if the necessary repairs or corrected unsafe conditions are completed, or failure to remove the Red Tag and replace it with the appropriate Departmental Red Tag if the repair or unsafe condition/s are not corrected, will result in disciplinary action up to and including dischar

12 Definitions De-Energized Risk Assessment Energy Isolating Device
Disconnected from all energy sources so no residual or stored energy. Risk Assessment Comprehensive evaluation of likelihood & extent of possible injury or damage, undertaken to choose proper safety precautions. Energy Isolating Device A mechanical Device That Physically Prevents The Transmission or Release of Energy. Examples include: circuit breakers, disconnect switches, slide gates, valves, blocks, and blind flanges. E-Stops-push button selector switches are not included in isolation devices.

13 Training Requirements
Authorized Employee Recognition of Hazardous Energy Sources. Type and Magnitude Energy Sources. Energy Isolation and Control Methods. 1st step in any risk assessment of machines, equipment, & processes is the systematic IDn of possible hazardous situations & how they can lead to harm during various phases of their life cycle by: IDing hazards How they can lead to harm Control measures to reduce risk Often requires team approach. Depends on complexity of the issue. In simple situations, comprehensive risk assessment may not be required where control points are simple & obvious, & safeguards are obvious and simple to control 22 22 22 22

14 Training Requirements
Affected Employee Purpose and Use of The Energy Control Program. 23 23 23 23

15 Training Requirements
All Other Employees Procedures and Prohibitions Relating To Attempts to Restart or Reenergize Machines or Equipment Which Are Locked Out or Tagged Out.. 24 24 24 24

16 Retraining Requirements
Authorized and Affected Employees Retraining Provided When There Is a: Change in Job Assignment. Change in Machines, Equipment or Processes. Change in Energy Control Procedures. Close-Call Event. Failure in the Procedures. Reason to Doubt Employee Proficiency. 25 25 25 25

17 Energy Control Program
1. Energy Control Procedures 2. Employee Training 3. Periodic Inspections Three Elements To The Program: 26 26 26 26

18 Definition of Lockout Lockout Is Defined as:
The Placement of a Lockout Device on an Energy Isolating Device, in Accordance With an Established Procedure, Ensuring That the Energy Isolating Device and the Equipment Being Controlled Cannot Be Operated Until the Lockout Device Is Removed. 27 27 27 27

19 Lockout Prevents release of hazardous energy
Lock placed on appropriate energy isolating device that is in the off or closed position

20 Energy Isolating Device
Block Line Valve Disconnecting Switch Manually Operated Switch Any Other Device That Isolates Energy 28 28 28 28

21 Types of Energy Sources
HYDRAULIC PNEUMATIC MECHANICAL RADIOACTIVE THERMAL ELECTRICAL CHEMICAL WATER/GAS Gravity, even stored energy in springs on a garage door for example can cause problems Think about which different types of disconnects are in your work area. 29 29 29 29

HOT SURFACE 30 30 30 30

23 Types of Energy States ACTIVE ENERGY VOLTAGES


25 Mechanical Energy Kinetic - machinery in motion
Gears Belts Potential - stored energy Weights (gravity) & springs Pistons under pressure Hydraulic controls

26 Potential Energy (Gravity)

27 Activities Covered NORMAL OPERATIONS:
1. Covered If an Employee Must Remove or Bypass Guards or Devices 2. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body Part in a Machine Process Area 3. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body Part in a Machine Having a Danger Zone 34 34 34 34

28 Tag-out Requirements 35 35 35 35

29 Tag-Out Identifies problem Identifies lockout date Identifies person
Used by itself only when cannot be locked out


31 Requirements if Tag-Out is Used
SOME KEY POINTS ABOUT TAGS: Tags Are Only Warning Devices! Tags Must Be Securely Attached! May Evoke False Sense of Security! Tags Do Not Provide Physical Restraint! Tags Must Never Be Defeated or Ignored! Must Withstand Environmental Conditions! Tags Must Be Legible and Understandable! Tags Are Only Removed by the Responsible Person. 36 36 36 36

32 Lock-Out Sequence of Events
1. Preparation for Shutdown 2. Shutdown 3. Machine or Equipment Isolation 4. Application of Lockout/Tagout Devices 5. Testing of LO/TO 6. Servicing or Maintenance 7. Removal of LO/TO Devices 8. Re-energization 9. Equipment Reactivation 37 37 37 37

33 1. Prepare Plan your work & locate instructions
Understand equipment hazards Notify others of shutdown

34 2. Shutdown Turn all switches to OFF Normal shutdown procedure
Shut all control valves

35 3. Isolate Sources Disable all energy sources Shut valves
Open breakers & disconnects

36 4. Apply Locks Valves Breaker & electrical disconnects
Block or disconnect all lines

37 Lockout Devices Plug locks Electrical Ball valve Hydraulic Gate valve
Hasp Electrical Hydraulic Pneumatic

38 Use of Locks Use only locks issued to you – lock all energy isolation gear Never use another workers lock or tag Tell supervisor if you need more LOTO equipment

39 5. Verification Prior to servicing or maintenance, authorized employee must verify that equipment is isolated by turning it on To Verify: The process of operating the start controls, engaging levers, measuring voltage, inspecting lockout devices valves,disconnect switches, blades, piping systems in an area to make sure that all energy sources have been isolated and controlled.

40 6. Control Stored Energy Block or release springs or other tension
Block elevated parts Stop rotating flywheels Relieve system pressure Drain fluids Vent gases

41 7. Prepare for Startup Put all guards back Remove tools
Inform others of startup Restore system connections Remove locks & tags Restore equipment to normal Conduct normal startup

42 Who Can Remove Locks/Tags?
Only the employee who placed the lock and/or tag A supervisor, after obtaining permission from the worker who placed the tag

43 Written Program Requirements
All Employers Must: Maintain a Written Program. Review the Program on an Annual Basis. Develop Detailed Energy Control Procedures. Review Individual LO/TO Procedures Annually. Make the Written Program Available to all Affected Employees During Each Work Shift. 38 38 38 38

44 Energy Control Procedures
Procedures Must Contain: 1. Statement of Intended Use. 2. Steps for Shut-Down and Energy Control. 3. Steps for LO/TO Device Placement, Transfer and Removal. 4. Determination of Responsibility. 5. Steps for Testing LO/TO. 44 44 44 44

45 Exceptions to the Requirement
Exceptions to the Requirement to have written LOTO Procedures All Of The Following Eight Conditions Must Exist: No Potential for Residual, Stored or Reaccumulation of Energy. Contains Only One Energy Source Which Is Readily Identified and Isolated. Isolating & Locking Out Results in Complete De-Energization. 4. The Machine or Equipment Is Isolated or Locked Out During Maintenance. 45 45 45 45

46 Exceptions to the Requirement
6. The Lockout Device Is Under Exclusive Control Of An Authorized Employee 7. Servicing/Maintenance Does Not Produce Hazards For Other Employees 8. No Previous Energy Control Accident History Exists for the Employer 46 46 46 46

47 Lock-Out Program Elements
ID hazardous energy covered by program ID types of energy isolating/de-energizing devices

48 Energy Control Procedures

49 Release From Lock-Out/Tag-Out The Authorized Employee Must:

50 Important Points to Remember
WHERE LOCKOUT CAN BE USED: IT MUST BE* WHERE LOCKOUT CANNOT BE USED: TAGOUT PROCEDURES MUST BE INITIATED * (Unless It Can Be Demonstrated That Full Protection Can Be Achieved by Other Means) 50 50 50 50

51 Group Lock-Out/Tag-Out
FOUR SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS 1. Responsibility Vested in a Single Authorized Employee. 2. The Authorized Employee Must Have the Authority To Determine Exposure Status of Group Members. 3. With Multiple Crews the Authorized Employee Must Be Assigned the Responsibility of The Overall Job. The Authorized Employee Shall Affix an Individual LO/TO Device at the Beginning of Work and Remove It at Completion of the Work. 51 51 51 51

52 Group Lock-Out/Tag-Out When The Authorized Employee Is Unavailable
PROCEDURES MUST INCLUDE, AS A MINIMUM: 1. Proof That the Employee Who Applied the Device Is Unavailable. 2. A Valid Attempt to Inform the Employee Who Applied the Device, That It Has Been Removed. 3. Adequate Notice to the Employee Who Applied The Device, of the Removal of the Device Before That Employee Returns to Work. 52 52 52 52

53 Contractor Safety Requirements
OUTSIDE CONTRACTORS MUST: Inform Representatives of the Facility Of Their LO/TO Procedures and Devices. COMPANY REPRESENTATIVES MUST: Inform the Contractor of Internal LO/TO Procedures and Devices. Ensure That the Contractor(S) Are Following LOTO Procedures. 53 53 53 53

54 TIPS For Using Contractors
Remember, You Control Your Facility! Review Their Procedures With Them Before Starting the Job! Determine Their Safety Performance Record! Determine Who Is in Charge of Their People! Determine How They Will Affect Your Employees! Ensure Your Data on Your Facility Is Accurate! 54 54 54 54

55 Key Elements to an Effective Program
1. Develop and Strictly Adhere to LO/TO Procedures. 2. Establish and Enforce Safe Work Practices. 3. Ensure Proper Training and Supervision. 4. Strengthen and Modify Present Policies. 5. Understand the Relationship Between 29 CFR And the Business or Industry Involved. 55 55 55 55

56 Equipment Requirements
DEVICES AND TAGS MUST BE: 1. Durable 2. Standardized 3. Identifiable 4. Substantial DEVICES AND TAGS ARE: 1. Designed to Prevent Accidental Energization. 2. Not Designed As a Substitution for Security. 56 56 56 56

57 Worker Killed By Mixing Machine
Case Study #1 Worker Killed By Mixing Machine NARRATIVE: An employee was assigned the task of cleaning the inside of a sand mixer. The task was conducted during a break in the production cycle, caused by routine maintenance work. He did this without anyone else’s knowledge. While he was engaged in this, out of sight and hearing of the others, an electrician started the machine, killing the man inside. This plant had a written lockout procedure, training had been given, and all affected employees (including the deceased), were issued keys and locks. 58 58 58 58

58 Questions to be Considered
What caused the death of the worker? Do you believe there are multiple causes? Are multiple OSHA Standard violations involved? What could upper management have done? What could the supervisor have done? What could the co-workers have done? To what extent was attitude responsible? To what extent is a lack of written policy responsible? To what extent is a lack of training responsible? Do you believe there is a single cause to this accident that, if removed would have prevented it? 59 59 59 59

59 Worker Killed By High Voltage
Case Study #2 Worker Killed By High Voltage NARRATIVE: A 13,800-volt main circuit breaker was under routine inspection. A test instrument was used to check for electrical energy. No electrical energy was detected at the primary power contacts in the circuit breaker. To verify the operation of the tester, the sensitivity was readjusted and checked against a known 120-volt receptacle. The tester was found to be operable. As the journeyman electrician approached one of the contacts with a shop towel, an explosion, engulfed him in flames. The power from the public utility company to the main circuit breaker had not been shut off. 60 60 60 60

60 Questions to be Considered
What caused the death of the worker? Do you believe there are multiple causes? Are multiple OSHA Standard violations involved? What could upper management have done? What could the supervisor have done? What could the co-workers have done? To what extent was attitude responsible? To what extent is a lack of written policy responsible? To what extent is a lack of training responsible? Do you believe there is a single cause to this accident that, if removed would have prevented it? 61 61 61 61

61 Energy Control Program Review


63 What a typical Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with an equipment lock.
Sample Equipment Lock What a typical Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with an equipment lock.

64 Sample Protection Lock
What a typical Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with a personal protection lock.

65 Sample Protection Lock
What a Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with a contractor & personal protection lock.

66 Yellow Tag / No Lock Occasionally you may see a yellow tag without a lock on equipment that is out of service.  This machine is Tagged Out because it will not run The tag will tell you what is wrong with the equipment  Never attempt to operate equipment that has been tagged

67 In order to properly block or secure any piece of mobile equipment, you must block or pin all articulation joints. Failure to properly secure articulation could result in vehicle movement when it is blocked in the raised position.

68 Adequate Blocking?

69 YES! Question Equipment already has a lock and tag on it.
Do I have to place my own locks & tags? YES! everyone working on equipment must place their own locks and tags

70 Tampered Lock-Out Hasps
The following examples illustrate tampered lockout hasps. These hasps are easily pried open with minimal effort. The construction and design does not provide adequate protection based on policies we have set or industry standards.

71 Tampered Lock-Out Hasps

72 This picture illustrates the new lockout hasp.
New Lock-Out Hasps This picture illustrates the new lockout hasp. 4 lock (stock code ) 8 lock (stock code ) The heavy-duty hinge-style hasp offers added pry resistance. Steel construction with 9/32" diameter shackles. This new hasp will restore lockout security.

73 Authorized Employees Properly plan the job.
Notify all affected employees in the area of work. Shut down the equipment at the operating controls. Isolate all energy sources to equipment. Lock and tag all isolating devices Dissipate all stored or residual energy sources. Verify the isolation. <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> Those who perform the work from the planning to the re-start. MAJOR POINT Authorized employees should tell affected employees job is complete before they remove their locks and tags and turn the equipment back on.

74 Affected Employees Stay clear of the area as much as possible.
Never attempt to assist . Never interfere or tamper with a lock or tag. Report all unusual situation to your supervisor or foreman. <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> Those who may be in the area and need to give the job a wide berth.

75 Electrical Tools And Cords

76 Visual Inspection Portable cord and plug connected equipment and flexible cord sets (extension cords) shall be visually inspected before use on any shift for external defects: Loose parts Deformed or missing pins Damage to outer jacket or insulation Evidence of possible internal damage

77 Portable Electric Tools & Cords
Portable equipment must be handled in a manner which will not cause damage. Flexible electric cords connected to equipment may not be used for raising or lowering the equipment. Flexible cords may not be fastened with staples or otherwise hung in such a fashion as could damage the outer jacket or insulation.

78 Always Use a GFCI Outlet
A GFCI is device intended for the protection of persons that functions to de-energize a circuit.

79 How Does the GFCI Work? GFCIs constantly monitor electricity flowing in a circuit. If the electricity flowing into the circuit differs by even a slight amount from that returning, the GFCI will quickly shut off the current flowing through that circuit. GFCIs work quickly, so they can help protect persons from severe electric shocks and electrocution. GFCI do not require a ground.                                              

80 Always Test Your GFCI before Use

81 Recommended Areas for GFCI’s
Bathrooms over your sink or tub Kitchens (sink area) Basements unfinished. Garages Cord and Plug Deicing and Snow Melting Equipment. On any portable electric equipment Pools and hot tubs Fountains Boat houses Wet Bar

82 Electrical Breaker Procedure
Was something NEW plugged in? Unplug Device & Reset Breaker Reset Breaker ONCE Contact Maintenance Supervisor Try Device in New Circuit Have device inspected by qualified person Does it Trip Again? Complete Electrical outlet breaker trips Yes No

83 Conclusion When In Doubt “Lock And Tag It Out”

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