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Lesson Five Love is a Fallacy ---- by Max Shulman Wand Cheng-jun.

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1 Lesson Five Love is a Fallacy ---- by Max Shulman Wand Cheng-jun

2 Aims To have a basic knowledge of the terms in logic.
To appreciate the humor in the story. To analyze the structure of the story To appreciate the language Wand Cheng-jun

3 Teaching Contents Special terms in logic Detailed study of the text
Organizational pattern The chief attraction of the story  Language features Exercises Wand Cheng-jun

4 Time allocation Terms in logic (15 min.)
Detailed study of the text (210 min.) Structure analysis (15 min.) Language appreciation (15 min.) Exercise (25 min.) Wand Cheng-jun

5 About the Author: Max Shulman
Wand Cheng-jun

6 About the Author: Max Shulman
a writer in the early '40s as one of America’s best-known humorists. Lots of his novels were adapted to the screen. Best remembered for creating the popular character Dobie Gillis, a typical American teen who frequently suffered from romantic angst. The character appeared on a popular television sitcom during the '50s and was in a feature film in 1953. Wand Cheng-jun

7 Pre-reading questions
1) What’s the theme of this story? 2) How do you understand the title of the text? Wand Cheng-jun

8 Pre-reading questions
The theme of the story is stated by the writer in the title of the story. Perhaps Max Shulman wants the reader, after reading the story, to conclude that ‘love’ is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic. But the writer, through this story has succeeded perhaps unwittingly in revealing what love may sometimes mean in the affluent society. Girls do not want brilliant, gifted or educated husbands, but want husbands who are rich and wealthy enough to provide all the wealthy things necessary for keeping up with the joneses---home , clothes, cars, (big mansions, famous brand cars,etc.) Wand Cheng-jun

9 Pre-reading questions
2) How do you understand the title of the text? The title of the story “Love is a fallacy” has two meanings . When “fallacy” is taken in its ordinary sense, the title means “ there is a deceptive or delusive quality about love”. When taken as a specific term in logic, the title means “ love can not be deduced from a set of given premises” Wand Cheng-jun

10 Lesson Five I. Special terms in logic
argument--a statement which is offered as an evidence or a proof. It consists of two major elements 1. conclusion 2. premises -- a previous statement serving as a basis for an argument. Conclusion is to be drawn from premises. Wand Cheng-jun

11 Special terms in logic fallacy -- false reasoning, as in an argument
a weakness and lack of logic or good sense in an argument or piece of reasoning Wand Cheng-jun

12 fallacy Usually, an argument is correct (deductively valid) if the premises can provide enough conclusive evidence for the conclusion. Otherwise the argument is wrong. It is said to be fallacious. Wand Cheng-jun

13 Special terms in logic Three kinds of fallacy:
1. material fallacy -- in its material content through a misstatement of the facts. 2. verbal fallacy -- in its wording through an incorrect use of terms. 3. formal fallacy-in its structure through the use of an improper process of inference. Wand Cheng-jun

14 False Analogy "High school should not require a freshman writing course . Harvard doesn't require a freshman writing course, and the students get along fine without it". --- The analogy is false because the two items don't have strong enough similarities to predict that what happens in one will happen in the other. Wand Cheng-jun

15 Dicta Simpliciter "Everyone wants to get married someday." --- The example starts a logical train of thought with an assumption that is false. Not "everyone" wants to get married. Wand Cheng-jun

16 Evading the issue There are a number of handy fallacies that people press into service to side step a problem while appearing to pursue the point. (文不对题) Wand Cheng-jun

17 1)Distraction "Suds ' n ' Puds is a great restaurant : you can see how shining clean the kitchens are ". --- The example is called distraction because the reader's attention is drawn to the cleanliness of the kitchen instead of to the excellence of the food, which is usually the determiner of a great restaurant. Wand Cheng-jun

18 2)Ad hominem "against the person". "poisoning the well"
" Ms Bauer is a terrible English teacher. She always wears blue jeans" --- Instead of point out faults in teaching technique, it calls attention to things about a teacher as a person that are unrelated to her teaching performance. Wand Cheng-jun

19 3)Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity)
"Look at this fourteen-year-old child who's run away from home to hide her shame-- pregnant, unwashed, friendless. penniless, at the mercy of our social service agencies. Can you till claim that sex should be taught in the classroom?" Wand Cheng-jun

20 3)Ad misericordian (an appeal to pity)
--- In this shifty approach to argumentation, the writer gives tear jerking descriptions of the cruel opponents' victims in order to arouse sympathy from the reader. Wang Cheng-jun Wand Cheng-jun

21 Hasty Generalization "Mr Wang's handwriting is terrible. Mr. Hu's handwriting is also terrible and you know how terrible men's handwriting is ." --- It applies a special case to general rule. That fact that certain person's handwriting is bad doesn't imply that all men‘s handwriting is bad. Wand Cheng-jun

22 Post hoc, ergo propter hoc –
“After this, therefore because of this" "The last five times that I've worn my white pants, something depressing has happened. I'm not going to wear those pants again!" -- This fallacy assumes that if event Y happened after event X, then X must be the cause of Y. Wand Cheng-jun

23 Circular Reasoning or Begging the question:
"Juan is an impressive speaker because he always touches his listeners deeply." Wand Cheng-jun

24 Circular Reasoning --- This problem occurs when the writer tries to support a claim by restating it in different words. You can tell this example is circular by considering this “Why is Juan an impressive speaker?” “Because he touches his listeners deeply.?” “Why are Juan's listeners touched so deeply?” “Because he is an impressive speaker.” impressive = touching someone deeply Wand Cheng-jun

25 Appeal to the Wrong Authority
"My political science teacher says that the new math is impossible for children to learn“. Wand Cheng-jun

26 Appeal to the Wrong Authority
--- If the student believes that political science teacher's low opinion of new math strongly supports an argument against new math, the student is wrong. The political science teacher is an authority, but in a different field. Wand Cheng-jun

27 Non Sequitur -- "it doesn't follow"
"Students who take earth science instead of physics are lazy. Susie took earth science instead of physics. Susie should be kicked out of school" --- If the first statement is correct, then you could conclude that Susie is lazy. But there's nothing in that line of reasoning that says lazy students should be kicked out of school. The conclusion doesn't follow. Wand Cheng-jun

28 II. Detailed study of the text:
title -- humorous/ well chosen 1. When "fallacy" is taken in its ordinary sense, the title means: There is a deceptive or delusive quality about love. Love has delusive qualities Wand Cheng-jun

29 Detailed study of the text:
2. When "fallacy" is having logical sense, it means : Love cannot be deduced from a set of given premises. Love can not follow the given rules. Love is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic. Wand Cheng-jun

30 Detailed study of the text:
Fallacy: a false or mistaken idea It is a fallacy to suppose that riches always bring happiness. Love is a fallacy: 1. There is a deceptive or delusive quality about love. 2. Love is an error, a deception that does not fellow the principle of love Wand Cheng-jun

31 Charles Lamb ( ) English essayist and critic who is now best known for his "Essays of Elia" (1823,1833). He collaborated with his sister Mary in adapting Shakespeare's plays into stories for children. "Tales from Shakespeare" "Specimens of English Dramatic Poets" Wand Cheng-jun

32 Thomas Carlyle ( 1795-188) English author, Scottish writer
He influenced social thinking about the new industrial working class through his essay "Chartism" and his book “The Present and the Past”. He is best known for his epic history of “The French Revolution” 1837 and his lectures “On Heroes and Hero-Workshop” 1841 Wand Cheng-jun

33 Thomas Carlyle ( ) He produced Sartor Resartus , the book in which he first developed his characteristic style and thought. This book is a veiled Sardonic (scornful 挖苦的) attack upon the shams and pretences of society, upon hollow rank, hollow officialism, hollow custom, out of which life and usefulness have departed. Wand Cheng-jun

34 Thomas Carlyle ( ) Carlyle developed a peculiar style of his own which was called --- "Carlyese" "Carlylism" Style -- a compound of biblical phrases colloquialisms Teutonic (条顿的,日尔曼的)twists his own coinings arranged in unexpected sequences. Wand Cheng-jun

35 John Ruskin -- (1819-1900) English critic and social theorist
*5image-1Ruskin* English critic and social theorist a writer on art and architecture In his later writings he attacked social and economic problems Modern Painters The Stones of Venice The Seven Lamps of Architecture Time and Tide Wand Cheng-jun

36 John Ruskin -- (1819-1900) Positive program for social reforms:
Sesame and Lilies (芝麻和百合) The Crown of Wild Olive The King of the Golden River Wand Cheng-jun

37 Detailed study of the text:
Enterprising: energetic, initiative In a month of Sundays: in a long time Unfetter: free from fetter, to set free or keep free from restrictions or bonds. Limp: drooping, having lost stiffness, rigidity Flaccid: Lacking firmness and resilience, flabby spongy: soft and porous * Wand Cheng-jun

38 Detailed study of the text:
Pedantic: Characterized by a narrow, often ostentatious concern for book learning and formal rules 迂腐的, 乏味 a pedantic attention to details.学究式地注意细枝末节 a pedantic style of writing; 学究式的写作风格; an academic insistence on precision; 一种学院式的苛求精神; donnish refinement of speech; 学究式的雅语; scholastic and excessively subtle reasoning.学究式且过于机巧的推理 * Wand Cheng-jun

39 Implication: My writing is even more informal. I can do better than them. He says this only with his tongue in cheek. Wand Cheng-jun

40 What is his purpose of writing this essay?
He compared logic to a living thing ( a human being). Logic is not at all a dry learned branch of learning. It is like a living human being, full of beauty, passion and painful emotional shocks. Wand Cheng-jun

41 trauma – a term in psychiatry meaning a painful emotional experience. Trauma: A painful emotional experience, wound or shock that creates substantial, lasting damage to the psychological development of a person, often leading to neurosis. Wand Cheng-jun

42 Author’s note 1) His own idea about his own essay.
From his point of view, his essay is sth limp, spongy. It is very informal. 2) His own idea about the purpose of that essay. It is not a dry branch of learning , but like a human being. Wand Cheng-jun

43 Para 4 Introduction of the narrator --- a law student
Notice the way he introduced himself "boasting" Wand Cheng-jun

44 keen – (of the mind) active, sensitive, sharp
(syn. nimble, quick, adroit prompt, sharp smart swift) 敏捷的,敏锐的 ~ sight 敏锐的视力 ~ intelligence 敏捷的智力 Wand Cheng-jun

45 calculating -- coldly planning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself. Wand Cheng-jun

46 Wang Cheng-jun fml. quick to judge and understand 敏于判断与了解, 敏捷
perspicacious --- fml. quick to judge and understand 敏于判断与了解, 敏捷 having or showing keen judgment and understanding Wang Cheng-jun Wand Cheng-jun

47 acute, astute acute-- (senses, sensation, intellect)
五官,感受,智力 able to notice small differences Dogs have an acute sense of smell. astute -- shrewd , quick at seeing how to gain an advantage clever and able to see quickly sth, that is to one's advantage.精明的,狡黠的 Wand Cheng-jun

48 Dynamo; Scalpel Dynamo: generator Scale: standard in measurement
Scalpel: A small, straight knife with a thin, sharp blade used in surgery and dissection. Wand Cheng-jun

49 comparison His brain – 1. dynamo -- powerful
2. a chemist's scales--- precise, accurate 3. scalpel -- penetrating Wand Cheng-jun

50 Para.5 introduction of the first antagonist – Petey Burch
He downgrades his roommate. nothing upstairs -- (Am. slang) empty-headed Wand Cheng-jun

51 unstable unstable emotional -- easily moved, upset or changed
-- having feelings which are strong or easily moved Wand Cheng-jun

52 impressionable -- easy to be influenced, often with the result that one's feeling and ideas change easily and esp. that one is ready to admire other people. Wand Cheng-jun

53 fad Faddist:a person who always follows fashion with craze
-- a style etc that interests many people for a short time, passing fashion. Faddist:a person who always follows fashion with craze Wand Cheng-jun

54 negation --- the lack or opposite of sth. positive, The opposite or absence of something regarded as actual, positive, or affirmative. Reason --- the ability to think, draw conclusions Fads / passing fashions, in my opinion, show a complete lack of reason. Wand Cheng-jun

55 to be swept up in -- to be carried away by follow enthusiastically
Wand Cheng-jun

56 idiocy -- great foolishness or stupidity Wand Cheng-jun

57 pound -- to hit hard to deliver heavy, repeated blows Wand Cheng-jun

58 Charleston *5image-2* -- a quick spirited dance of the 1920's, in 4/4 time, characterized by a twisting step. Wand Cheng-jun

59 Raccoon --浣熊 the fur of a small, tree climbing mammal of N. America, having yellowish gray fur and a black, bushy ringed tail.呈环状花纹的尾巴 *5image-3raccoon* Wand Cheng-jun

60 incredulously -- showing disbelief, unbelieving
an incredulous look/ smile Wand Cheng-jun

61 in the swim -- knowing about and concerned in what is going on in modern life. active in or conforming to current fashions Wand Cheng-jun

62 mixed metaphor: 1. brain -- a precision instrument
2. brain -- a machine that has gears Wand Cheng-jun

63 gear--- any of several arrangements, esp. of toothed wheels in a machine, which allows power to be passed from one part to another so as to control the power, speed or direction of movement. Wand Cheng-jun

64 gear--- bottom gear top gear
low in a car which is used for starting high --- for going fast Wand Cheng-jun

65 gear--- If you say that a person, system, or process is in a particular gear, you are talking about the speed, energy, or efficiency with which they are working or functioning. eg. It took time to shift back into normal gear for boring routine tasks. She knew how to change gear in order to achieve the right result. The Chinese economy will be in high gear. Wand Cheng-jun

66 stroke – Wang Cheng-jun pass the hand over gently, esp. for pleasure
The cat likes to be stroked. (over the surface of ) Wang Cheng-jun Wand Cheng-jun

67 He didn’t have it exactly, but at least he had first rights on it. P22
He didn’t really own Polly, or Polly didn’t really belong to him. He meant they were not married or going steady. But they were friends so Petey had the first claim or privilege of first asking Polly to be his wife. Notice the deliberate use of “it”, showing the narrator’s attitude towards Polly. It maybe refers to a property or wealth, which can be possessed by sb before appropriation. Wand Cheng-jun

68 Para. 23 the introduction of the second antagonist Wand Cheng-jun

69 cerebral – (fml, humor) 理智的 1. of the brain
2. intellectual, excluding the emotions tending to or showing (too much) serious thinking Wand Cheng-jun

70 gracious --- polite What are the specifications of his future wife?
kind pleasant What are the specifications of his future wife? 1. beautiful 2. gracious 3. intelligent Wand Cheng-jun

71 Pin-up Proportions Pin-up: (American colloquialism) designating a girl whose sexual attractiveness makes her a subject for the kind of pictures often pinned up on walls. Proportions: lines, shape of body Wand Cheng-jun

72 carriage --- (sing) the manner of carrying oneself, bearing the manner of holding one's head, limbs, and body when standing or walking. physical aspects of persons bearing 体态, 仪态 Dancing can improve the carriage. 舞蹈能增进体态美。 Wand Cheng-jun

73 deportment -- fml. 1. Br.E the way a person, esp. a young lady, stands and walks 2. Am.E the way a person, esp, a young lady, behaves in the company of others Wand Cheng-jun

74 bearing -- manner of holding one's body or way of behaving
(physical /mental posture)举止,仪态 She has a very modest bearing. 她举止淑静。 Wand Cheng-jun

75 breeding --- polite social behavior Wand Cheng-jun

76 makings -- qualities, the possibility of developing into 素质
He has the makings of a good doctor. He has in him the makings of a great man. Wand Cheng-jun

77 pot roast --- a piece of beef cooked only with a little water after having been made brown by cooking in hot fat. Wand Cheng-jun

78 dipper– a long-handled cup esp for dipping a dipper of sauerkraut
-- a small cupful of pickled chopped cabbage veer -- change in direction, shift, turn Wand Cheng-jun

79 arrangement Wang Cheng-jun The act or process of arranging
Wand Cheng-jun

80 go steady -- (Am. coll.) to date sb of the opposite sex regularly and exclusively; be sweetheart Wand Cheng-jun

81 Field ;open Field: an area where games or athletic events are held.
Open: free to take part or compete in (games being held in the field). Wand Cheng-jun

82 wink -- v. n. v. to close and open (one eye) rapidly, usu, as signal between people, esp of amusement He winked at her and she knew he was only pretending to be angry. n. a winking movement He left the room with a wink of the eye. She gave me a wink. Wand Cheng-jun

83 mince – to lessen the force of , weaken, as by euphemism
If you do not mince your words, you tell sb sth, unpleasant without making any effort to be polite or to avoid upsetting them. I never mince words, you know that. 直言不讳 Wand Cheng-jun

84 torn--- tear---destroy the peace of
to divide with doubt, uncertainty, agitate, torment He was agitated and torn, not knowing what was the right thing to do. a heart torn by grief Wand Cheng-jun

85 swivel --- v. move round The chair swiveled to the right when he tried it. 1) If you swivel or swivel round, you turn round quickly, especially when you are in a sitting position. 2) If you swivel your head or eyes in a particular direction, you turn your head or eyes in that direction, so that you can look at sth. Wand Cheng-jun

86 wax – increase in strength, size/ grow, extend, enlarge Wand Cheng-jun

87 wane – decrease , fail, diminish, sink
If sth waxes and wanes, it first increases and then decreases over a period of time. eg. My feelings for John wax and wane. The popularity of the film stars waxed and waned. Wand Cheng-jun

88 comply – Wang Cheng-jun act on a accordance with a request, order etc.
Wand Cheng-jun

89 mound A raised mass, as of hay; a heap. Wand Cheng-jun

90 bunch – Wang Cheng-jun collect, gather in bunches (here) stand up
Wand Cheng-jun

91 Deal -- an arrangement to the advantage of both sides, often in business bargain, transaction Wand Cheng-jun

92 loom --- appear 朦胧出现 to come into sight without a clear form, esp. in a way that appears very large and unfriendly, causing fear. If sth. looms, it appears as a problem or event that is approaching, or that will soon happen, a rather literary use. eg. This looms as a big question for many new parents. Wand Cheng-jun

93 no small Understatement---Restraint or lack of emphasis in expression, as for rhetorical effect. .保守的陈述, 掩饰 litotes --- A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite, as in: This is no small problem. 曲言法, 间接表达法, 反语法 (以反面的否定代替肯定的词格, 如:no easy 代替 very difficult, not bad 代替 very good 等) Wand Cheng-jun

94 dimension -- a measurement in any one direction, extent Wand Cheng-jun

95 wow-dow -- (interjection) an exclamation of surprise, wonder, pleasure etc Wand Cheng-jun

96 wince -- to move suddenly as if drawing the body away from sth unpleasant She winced as she touched the cold body. She winced (mentally) at his angry words. Wand Cheng-jun

97 chirp -- make the short sharp sounds of small birds or some insects, say or speak in a way that sounds like this. She chirped (out) her thanks. Wand Cheng-jun

98 doom -- cause to experience or suffer sth unavoidable and unpleasant such as death or destruction From the start, the plan was doomed to failure (to fail). We are doomed to unhappiness. He was doomed to be killed in a car crash. Wand Cheng-jun

99 -- proof – resistant to, make to give protection against fire-proof
waterproof watch a bullet-proof car a sound-proof room Wand Cheng-jun

100 metaphor: Polly's mind -- the extinct crater of a volcano
extinct -- no longer burning Her Intelligence -- embers ( ashes of a dying fire) 余烬 Wand Cheng-jun

101 crater --- the round bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano Wand Cheng-jun

102 ember -- (usu. pl.) a red-hot piece of wood or coal esp, in a fire that is no longer burning with flames. Wand Cheng-jun

103 admittedly -- by admission or general agreement confessedly
Wand Cheng-jun

104 prospect -- future probabilities based on present indications or analyses Wand Cheng-jun

105 hope -- based on desire, with or without any likelihood that the hoped for will happen or materialize Parents have high hopes for their children. A man saves money in the hope that inflation will not wipe it out. Wand Cheng-jun

106 appeal -- to make a strong request for help, support, mercy, beg
He appealed to his attacker for mercy. Wand Cheng-jun

107 blue-prints -- a photographic copy of a plan for making a machine or building a house. The plans for improving the educational system have only reached the blueprint stage so far. Wand Cheng-jun

108 pitchblende -- fracture -- break, crack, split
n. 沥青油矿 a dark shiny substance dug from the earth, from which uranium and radium are obtained. fracture -- break, crack, split Wand Cheng-jun

109 hypothesis -- an idea which is thought suitable to explain the facts about sth. an idea which is suggested as a possible explanation for a particular situation or condition, but which has not yet been proved to be correct. eg. People have proposed all kinds of hypothesis about what these things are. Wand Cheng-jun

110 cute– 1. clever, shrewd 2. pretty, attractive, esp in a dainty way
Wand Cheng-jun

111 debate -- argue formally, usually under the control of a referee and according to a set of regulations. The House of Commons debated the proposal for three weeks. Wang Cheng-jun Wand Cheng-jun

112 argue -- general word a reasoned presentation of views or a heated exchange of opinion amounting to a quarrel They argued vociferously over who should pay the bill. Wand Cheng-jun

113 argue The MP argued his position with such cogency and wit that even his opponents were impressed. 这个议员对自己的主张进行如此有说服力和机智的辩论,使他的对手也对此留下深刻地印象。 Wand Cheng-jun

114 hamstring – to cut the hamstring
destroying the ability to walk a cord-like tendon at the back of the leg, joining a muscle to a bone claw-- scratch, clutch, as with claws (nails) scrape -- scratch, cut the surface of slightly Wand Cheng-jun

115 Over and over… Over and over again I gave examples and pointed out the mistakes in her thinking . I kept emphasizing all this without stopping. to hammer away – to keep emphasizing or talking about let-up– stopping, relaxing Wand Cheng-jun

116 She was a fit… Here the narrator described the role which he thinks, a wife should play. well-heeled : (American slang) rich, prosperous Wand Cheng-jun

117 fashion -- v. to shape or make (sth) into or out of sth. usually with one's hands or with only a few tools ~ a hat out a leaves ~ some leave into a hat Wand Cheng-jun

118 The time had come… The time had come to change our relationship from that of teacher and student to that of lovers. academic: scholastic; educational; of students,teachers. romantic: of lovemaking or courting Wand Cheng-jun

119 constellation Languish shambling
-- a group of fixed stars often having a name Languish -- become or be lacking in strength or will shambling -- walking awkwardly, dragging the feet Wand Cheng-jun

120 hulk – a heavy, awkward person Wand Cheng-jun

121 surge -- 1) move esp. forward, in or like powerful waves.
The crowd surged past him. 2) (of feeling) to arise powerfully Anger surged (up) within him. Wand Cheng-jun

122 darn -- damn (euph) adv. used for giving force to an expression, good or bad a ~ fool He ran damn fast. Wand Cheng-jun

123 croak -- speak with a rough voice as if one has a sore throat, utter in a deep, hoarse tone. Wand Cheng-jun

124 playful--- A playful action or remark is light-hearted and friendly rather than serious or hostile. Wand Cheng-jun

125 That did it. -- That was the final straw. That made me lose my patience. That make me lose my self-control This idiomatic phrase is used very often in English and the meaning depends largely on the context in which it is used. Wand Cheng-jun

126 That did it. -- "that" -- what has gone before "Polly's last answer"
"it" -- the result or consequence brought about by "that" Wand Cheng-jun

127 bellow -- roar with a reverberating sound as a bull cry out loudly, as in anger Wand Cheng-jun

128 reel back -- step away suddenly and unsteadily, as after a blow or shock When she hit him, he reeled back and almost fell. Wand Cheng-jun

129 overcome -- be overwhelmed
If you are overcome by a feeling, you feel it very strongly I was overcome by a sense of failure. He was overcome with astonishment. Wand Cheng-jun

130 infamy – wicked behavior, public dishonor, being shameful/ disgraceful infamous – well known for wicked, evil behavior. infamous action, wicked, shameful, disgraceful Wand Cheng-jun

131 rat -- metaphor (Am. sl.) Wang Cheng-jun
used for describing a sneaky, contemptible person. Wang Cheng-jun Wand Cheng-jun

132 modulate – adjust, vary the pitch, intensity of the voice
Some people are able to modulate their voices according to the size of the room in which they speak. Wand Cheng-jun

133 jitterbug -- 1. a quick active popular dance of the 1940's
2. a person who did this sort of dance Am. sl. a person who is very nervous jitters -- n. jittery -- adj. nervous, unstable Wand Cheng-jun

134 Frankenstein The young student in Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley ( ) romance of that name (1818), a classic horror story. Frankenstein made a soulless monster out of corpses from church-yards and dissecting-rooms and endued (赋予)it with life by galvanism.(流电疗法) The tale shows the creature longed for sympathy, but was shunned (躲避) by everyone and became the instrument of dreadful retribution (惩罚)on the student who usurped the prerogative (特权)of the creator Wand Cheng-jun

135 The main idea of this lesson:
It is about a law student who tries to marry the girl after suitable re-education, but he's been too clever for his own good. The narrator, Dobie Gillis, a freshman in a law school, is the protagonist Wand Cheng-jun

136 Protagonist: a law school student very young clever
over-conceited -- cool, logical, keen, calculating, perspicacious, acute, astute, powerful, precise, penetrating Wand Cheng-jun

137 Antagonists 1. Petey Burch -- pitiful, dump, roommate, faddist
2. Polly Espy --- beautiful, gracious, stupid Wand Cheng-jun

138 短语 (Expressions) nothing upstairs :   (Am.slang) empty-headed;a nitwit没头脑的,愚笨的 in the swimming :   conforming to the current fashion赶时髦        例: She is always involved in the swim.她总是追求时髦。 get one’s hands on :   to obtain sth.得到,获得        例: They all want to get their hands on my money.他们都觊觎我的钱。 go steady :   to date someone of the opposite sex regularly and sweethearts约会,成为关系确定的情侣     例: When did you go steady with her?你和她是什么时候确定恋爱关系的? Wand Cheng-jun

139 短语 (Expressions) out of the picture :   not considered as involved in a situation不相干的,不合适的        例: “Is Pam still with Eric?” “No,he’s out of the picture.”“帕姆还在跟埃里克在一起吗?”“没有,他们已经互不相干了。” get at :   seem to be saying sth.that other people d0 not completely understand暗示        例: What exactly are you getting at?你到底在暗示什么? have…at one’s finger tips :   to be completely familiar with;精通        例: We have all the facts and figures at our fingers.我们已经掌握了所有的事实和数字。 go far :   to accomplish much:achieve much success 成功,大有前途        例: Ginny’s a smart girl.and I’m sure she’d go far.吉尼是个聪明的姑娘,我相信她会成功的。 Wand Cheng-jun

140 短语 (Expressions knock out :   to elicit enthusiasm or an emotional response,esp.deep sympathy or laughter使高兴,使情绪激动        例: The music was just brilliant it really knocked me out.这音乐太美妙了——它真让我激动。 fire away :   begin; start; esp. to talk or ask questions 开始谈话或提问        例: “I have some question.” “Fire away.”“我有问题。”“请问。” hammer away (at) :   to keep emphasizing or talking about一再强调        例: He kept hammering away at his demand for a public inquiry.他一再强调需要进行公众调查。 month of Sundays :   (colloq.)long time很久,很长的时间 Wand Cheng-jun

141 III. Organizational Pattern
4 sections Sect. I para 1-3 It is the author's note. 1. The author's idea about this story. 2. The author's idea about the purpose of this story. Wand Cheng-jun

142 III. Organizational Pattern
Sect II para the bargain between the law student and his roommate over the exchange of the girl, Wand Cheng-jun

143 III. Organizational Pattern
sub-divisions: 1) p4 introduction of the narrator -- protagonist 2) p5-21 introduction of the first antagonist -- Petey Burch He downgrades his roommate, who has nothing upstairs. 3) p introduction of he second antagonist -- Polly Espy Wand Cheng-jun

144 III. Organizational Pattern
4) p sounding out / finding out the relationship between Petey and Polly. 5) p unethical transaction over Polly The student gives the raccoon coat the roommate wants, and his roommate gives his girl friend in return. They have a kind of deal. Wand Cheng-jun

145 III. Organizational Pattern
Sect III. para the teaching of 8 logical fallacies 10 sub-divisions: 1. p a survey, first date with the girl, first impression of the girl. He tries to find out how stupid she is. Wand Cheng-jun

146 III. Organizational Pattern
2. p the teaching of Dicto Simpliciter 3. P the teaching of Hasty Generalization 4. p Post Hoc 5. p Contradictory Premises 6. p interposition, He wants to give the girl back. Wand Cheng-jun

147 III. Organizational Pattern
7. p Ad Misericordiam 8. p False Analogy 9. p Hypothesis Contrary to Fact 10.p Poisoning the Well Wand Cheng-jun

148 III. Organizational Pattern
Sect.IV. para125– the ending of the story backfiring of all the arguments The girl learns her lessons too well. She uses all the logical fallacies to fight back her teacher. Wand Cheng-jun

149 Pay attention to the change of his emotions:
1. favoring her with a smile 2. chuckled with amusement 3. chuckled with somewhat less amusement 4. forcing a smile/ ground my teeth 5. croaked, dashed perspiration from my brow 6. bellowing like a bull Wand Cheng-jun

150 IV. The chief attraction of this lesson
It's humor The whole story is a piece of light, humorous satire, satirizing a smug, self-conceited freshman in a law school. Wand Cheng-jun

151 IV. the chief attraction of this lesson
Why : 1) the title The title is humorous. The writer wants the readers to conclude that "love" is an error, a deception and an emotion that does not follow the principles of logic. Wand Cheng-jun

152 IV. the chief attraction of this lesson
2) the author's note "spongy", "limp", "flaccid" are specific characteristics of his essay. He is joking, which indicates that the whole story is humorous. 3) the contrast -- the law student & the girl & Petey boasting himself downgrading the others the student ---- the girl Wand Cheng-jun

153 IV. the chief attraction of this lesson
4) the ending of the story the raccoon coat which the law student despises and give it to his roommate for the exchange of his girl friend has finally become the rootcause of his losing his girl friend. 5) the clever choice of the names Pettey ---- pity Espy ---- I spy Wand Cheng-jun

154 V. Language features: 1. American colloquialism 2. Informal style
short sentences elliptical sentences --- to increase the tempo of the story dashes 3. rhetorical devices Wand Cheng-jun

155 V. Language features: 4. sharp contrast in the language
1) the law student uses ultra learned terms standard English 100% correct 2) clipped vulgar forms, slang words gee, magnif, terrif, pshaw, 5. inverted sentences Wand Cheng-jun

156 V. Language features: What effect does the language have on the readers: 1. vivid 2. colorful 3. informal Wand Cheng-jun

157 Type of writing This text is a piece of narrative writing. The narrator of the story, Dobie Gillis, a freshman in a law school, is the hero or protagonist. He struggles against two antagonists: Petey Burch, his roowmmate whose girl friend he plans to steal; and Polly Espy, the girl he intends to marry after suitable re-education.The climax of the story is reached in paras when Polly refuses to go steady with the narrator because she had already promised to go steady with Petey Burch. The denouement follows rapidly and ends on a very ironic note. Wand Cheng-jun

158 The summary of the story
This text is a piece of narrative writing, a story. The narrator of the story, Dobie Gill is a freshman in a law school, is the hero or protagonist. He struggles against two antagonist: Petey Burch, his roommate whose girl friend he plans to steal; and Polly Espy, the girl he intends to marry after suitable re-education. Dobie tried very hard to persusde Petey to exchange a raccoon coat with his girl. Then Dobie had several dates with Polly, with the view to educate her to meet the requirements for an ideal wife. Wand Cheng-jun

159 The summary of the story
The story reached its climax when Polly refuses to go steady with the narrator because she had already promised to go steady with Petey Burch, simply because Petey owned a raccoon coat, a coat that all fashionable people on campus were wearing. The raccoon coat which he gave to Petey Burch for the privilege of dating his girl. The story ends with a very ironic tone. Wand Cheng-jun

160 Exercise 1. Fads enjoy very brief popularity, which fashions are likely to be longer-lasting. Also, "fad" has a pejorative connotation. A fad is a cheap sort of fashion, somewhat debased. To be described as fashionable is a compliment. However, to be swayed by fads is to show a weakness for sudden and brief trends. Wand Cheng-jun

161 Exercise 2. "Incredible" means unbelievable. It comes from the Latin "in" (not), and "credibitis"(credible). "Incredulous" means disbelieving or skeptical. It is not as strong as "incredible" Wand Cheng-jun

162 Exercise 3. "Eager” suggests strong interest or desire. "Passionate" is nearly the same but generally is used in a more intense way, to express a degree of emotion slightly greater than "eager". 4. "Feeling" and “Emotions" are often considered interchangeable, though "emotions" is often considered the stronger word. Wand Cheng-jun

163 Exercise 5. "Revealed" is the better word here, with its connotation of making known what has been kept secret. "Showed" is a more general word and, while acceptable, is not as precise. Wand Cheng-jun

164 Exercise 6. To be "inclined" is to be disposed to do something, to have a tendency. To be tempted is to be attracted to something in a strong way, though again these two words are very close in meaning, I would rate "tempted" as the stronger verb. Wand Cheng-jun

165 Exercise 7. "Exasperation" is extreme annoyance or irritation. "Disappointed" indicates a degree of frustration less extensive than "exasperation". Again the author has chosen the stronger of the alternatives. Wand Cheng-jun

166 Exercise Wang Cheng-jun
8. “Tolerant” here implies endurance of Polly‘s faults, an ability to endure her stupidity. “Indulgent” means lenient( 宽大的) , forgiving, and the inner pain and difficulty implied by "tolerant“ Wang Cheng-jun Wand Cheng-jun

167 Exercise 9. “Merriment” is gay conviviality(欢乐), and hilarity(欢闹). It is a much stronger word than "amusement", which refers to being pleased or entertained. Amusement is not so strong an emotion as merriment. 10. “Languish” means to become weak or feeble, to become listless. “To suffer a lot” is a vague, broad term. “Languish” is a better word in this case. Wand Cheng-jun

168 Ex. III. 1. It's humorous, thanks to the word "fallacy", one commonly used in logic. The tale not only gives us a clue of the nature of our narrator's passion, but reflects on the fallacy of his own love for Polly and fallacy in his seemingly well-wrought plan. Wand Cheng-jun

169 Ex. III. 2. Para 4 is a good example of the author's attitude toward himself. The audacious (brave) pride is so great that we can quickly see it is a parody. The author realizes that at 18 he felt smarter than he really was -- he was blind to his own ignorance. He makes fun of himself throughout. Wand Cheng-jun

170 Ex. III. 3. Its purpose is to entertain in a light-hearted way. There is no pretence to teaching us anything, but simply to give us a few chuckles. This is hinted at in the author's note. 4. Polly‘s language is trendy( 时髦的), inane(空洞的), vulgar(粗俗的), and meaningless. It illustrates, until the end of the story. It shows the limits of her weak mind. Wand Cheng-jun

171 Ex. III. 5. The narrator has learned logic as a subject in school, when he tries to apply his knowledge to real life, he fails miserably. He sees what goes on in the classroom is divorced from real life. He tries to make Polly forget the fallacies he had taught her. 6. The topic sentence is "He was a torn man". This idea is developed by a series of details that describe Petey's confused state. Wand Cheng-jun

172 Ex. III. 7. Because he begged Polly's love, which was refused. He was going to get the same result as Frankenstein, who created a monster that destroyed him, not as Pygmalion, who was loved by the beautiful statue he had fashioned. The narrator's allusions come naturally, from his experience. He has probably read Pygmalion and Frankenstein for a college course, so the allusions do seem apt. Wand Cheng-jun

173 Ex. III. 8. When the narrator finally succeeds in teaching Polly, she learns logic too well and turns it against him after his declaration of love. In her decision to choose Petey she had used the logic the narrator taught her. Had he not given away his raccoon coat and taught her logic lessons he might have had Polly as his own. The irony is that he succeeded to well. Wand Cheng-jun

174 Ex. III. keen -- It suggests unusual ability or perceptiveness adding to them a vigorous forceful ability to grass complex problem 1. The keen ears of the dog heard the sound long before we did. 2. He exercised keen judgment to rescue the drowning. 他当机立断,救出了那个溺水儿童。 Wand Cheng-jun

175 calculating -- It means coldly planning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself 有心计,精明的 He was regarded as a calculating man. To Kate, calculating and cold, the most important thing was power. Wand Cheng-jun

176 perspicacious -- fml. It suggests one has or shows an unusual power or ability of keen judgment and understanding 敏锐,颖悟 Tom's understanding to the matter is ~. 汤姆对这件事的理解很透彻、敏锐。 Wand Cheng-jun

177 perspicacious -- fml Wang Cheng-jun
These were the fundamental difficulties, but few men were perspicacious enough to appreciate them. 这些是基本的困难,但是没有几个人能敏锐地意识到它们。 Wang Cheng-jun Wand Cheng-jun

178 acute -- It suggests a sensitivity and receptivity to the small differences that was not notices by others, also implies a high-keyed state of nervous attention that will not be lasting. He is an acute observer and thinker. Wand Cheng-jun

179 astute -- It means clever and having a thorough or deep understanding, stemming from a scholarly or experienced mind that is full command of a given field. 狡猾的;诡计多端 He is astute and capable. 他精明强干。 They are astute financiers. 他们是一些诡计多端的金融家。 Wand Cheng-jun

180 intelligent 聪明,明智 理解力,认识,学习 He was intelligent enough to turn off the gas when he was out. He was intelligent enough to understand my meaning form my gestures Wand Cheng-jun

181 bright --- (学习,理解力)聪明,心思灵敏,反应快 He is a bright child, as you can tell when you talk with him. Wand Cheng-jun

182 brilliant --- stronger than bright
才华出众,卓越的,能力与理解力 stronger than bright he was considered as a brilliant speaker. 他是公认的卓越的演说家。 Wand Cheng-jun

183 alert --- 动作灵敏 clever, bright , smart --- more colloquial
A sparrow is very alert in its movement. clever, bright , smart --- more colloquial clever --- bright , skillful, having a quick mind smart -- (AmE) Wand Cheng-jun

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