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AP World History POD #14 – Age of Transition

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Presentation on theme: "AP World History POD #14 – Age of Transition"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP World History POD #14 – Age of Transition
Protestant Reformation

2 Class Discussion Questions
McKay – “The Decline of the Church’s Prestige”, pp McKay – “The Church ca ”, pp McKay – “Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism”, pp

3 What was the Babylonian Captivity?
The French king pressured the Pope to move to Avignon In Avignon reforms were made on the financial administration and centralized government of the church This damaged the prestige of the Pope as a focus was placed on bureaucratic procedure rather than spiritual matters Pope Gregory XI brought the church back to Rome After the death of Pope Gregory XI there was a call made for an Italian pope

4 What was the Great Schism?
1378 – the College of Cardinals elected Urban VI as Pope He desired church reform , however, his bullish actions alienated many causing people to question his sanity A group of Cardinals opposed to Urban VI met in Avignon claiming his election was illegal as it was made under duress – they elected Clement VII as Pope

5 What forces aligned with the Pope?
Urban VI Rome England Italian City-States (1st)

6 What forces aligned with the Anti-Pope?
Clement VII Avignon Scotland Aragon Castile Portugal Italian City-States (2nd)

7 What were the effects of the Great Schism?
The common people were confused by which pope to support The faith of many Christians was weakened Church leadership was brought into dispute and lost a great deal of authority in the eyes of the people

8 How was the Great Schism resolved?
1409 – a council met at Pisa – called by the Roman and Avignon Cardinals Both popes were deposed as neither would resign A new pope was elected – a third pope – German Emperor Sigismund called a new council at Constance Roman Pope – deposed Successor Pope – deposed Avignon Pope – isolated Roman Cardinal Colonna was chosen as Pope Martin V

9 What new ideas were introduced by John Wycliff?
English scholar and theologian Argued that the scriptures alone should be the standard of Christian belief and power Argued that the Pope did not have greater authority than the scriptures Called for an end to the veneration of saints, pilgrimages, pluralism, and absenteeism Called for the Christians to read the Bible for themselves, thus the need for vernacular translations of the Bible Called for the Church to be stripped of its’ property Argued all Christians were free of mortal sin Ideas were opposed by clerics – supported by the common man Hailed as a precursor to the Reformation

10 What problems did the Church face in the late 15th and early 16th century?
The papal conflict with the German Emperor Frederick II in the 13th century, followed by the Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism, badly damaged the prestige of Church leaders The spiritual quality of the lives of the local parish priest was sub par Clerical immorality – drunkeness, gambling, indulgence in fancy dress and luxury, and womanizing Clerical ignorance – the parish priests were not well educated as many were barely able to read and write Clerical pluralism – many clerics held several offices at one time – they would hire poor parish priests to do their homework for a low wage and rarely if ever set foot in the areas and churches they controlled (absenteeism) Most clerics lived a life of luxury and much more inline with secular Renaissance princes

11 What early attempts were made to reform the Church?
An ecumenical council was held in Rome ( ) The proposed reforms were unable to be enacted and enforced prior to the activities of Martin Luther in Germany

12 Who was Martin Luther? A university educated peasant who became a cleric Had a widespread desire for church reform and a deep yearning for salvation Believed salvation comes not through external observations but rather through a simple faith in Christ

13 What was the 95 Thesis? Posted on the church doors at Wittenburg, Germany – circulated via the printing press Martin Luther wrote the 95 Thesis to begin a scholarly debate on the practices of the church

14 What were the complaints against the Church leveled by Luther in the 95 Thesis?
As a means to raise money for the construction of Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome, Pope Leo X authorized the sale of indulgences The Dominican Friar Johann Tetzel became the point person in the sale of these indulgences Indulgences allowed a sinner forgiveness on earth or escape from purgatory and safe entry into heaven

15 What arguments did Luther make to support his arguments?
Indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance, competed with the preaching of the Gospel and downplayed the importance of charity in Christian life Luther questioned the authority of the Pope to grant indulgences on the grounds that there was no biblical basis for it By denying the legality of the indulgences it also denied the authority of the pope Denied the authority and infallibility of the Pope

16 7. What decisions were made at the Diet of Worms?
Luther was ordered to recant his beliefs or face excommunication Excommunication was imposed Holy Roman Emperor Charles V declared Luther an outlaw denying him legal protection Duke Frederick of Saxony offered Luther protection With this the issue moved from being a religious dispute to a political issue

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