Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution How did the colonist win their independence?"— Presentation transcript:
The American Revolution How did the colonist win their independence?
Intolerable Acts—passed to punish Massachusetts The port of Boston was closed. Massachusetts colonists could not hold town meetings more than once a year without the governor’s permission. Customs officers and other officials could be tried in Britain or Canada instead of in Massachusetts. A new Quartering Act said colonists must house British soldiers in their homes.
Goal: Petition the King to repeal the Intolerable Acts Colonial Actions: Boycott British goods until Parliament repeals the Intolerable Acts (Boston) Colonies begin to form a militia (and minutemen) Philadelphia, PA What was the purpose of the First Continental Congress ?
Capture John Hancock and John Adams who were hiding in Lexington capture an arsenal, which Patriots/minuteme n were getting their weapons from Paul Revere’s ride to warn the colonists and minutemen of the regulars approaching Lexington & Concord.
5 William Dawes Dawes took the longer “by land” route across the isthmus of Massachusetts and was able to elude capture by British forces and warned militia at several locations along the route the British traveled to Lexington and Concord. Dawes was thrown from his horse and was captured. The Riders Only Prescott was able to make it to Concord Revere was captured, but lied to the British about colonial troop strength, and was eventually released to return to Boston on a poorly rested horse. Paul Revere
6 Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775 “The Shot Heard ‘Round the World”
Captain John Parker, was lined up on the village green. Parker had ordered his men to “stand their ground…”, but added “if they mean to have a war, let it begin here”. A shot was fired – no one knew where it came from Small skirmish since the militia retreated into the woods; militia is unprepared and scared “The shot heard ‘round the world” The colonist were fighting the most powerful country in Europe!
Location: Concord North Bridge Guerilla tactics vs. line formation Colonial militia forced the British to retreat back to Boston
9 BritainColonists Well-trained and equipped army Familiarity of territory Strong central government with a strong economy Capable leadership of Washington and other generals Support of Loyalists and some Native Americans A common cause— fighting for independence Strengths
10 BritainColonists Distance from homelandMany soldiers untrained and uneducated in military tactics Troops unfamiliar with terrain Shortages of food and ammunition Weak military leadersNo central government to enforce wartime laws No common cause to rally army or British people Inferior navy Weaknesses
How does Patrick Henry unite the colonist towards independence? Patrick Henry’s Speech to House of Burgesses (March 23, 1775) Speech “Give me liberty or give me death! St. John’s Church, Richmond, Virginia
12 John Adams Goal changed from forcing Britain to repeal the Intolerable Acts to fighting a war against the British Army Actions Congress created the Continental Army, appointed George Washington as commander, and printed paper currency. Eventually they produced the Declaration of Independence Second Continental Congress May 10, 1775, to March 2,1789 W hat was the purpose of the Second Continental Congress? What actions did the Second Continental Congress take towards independence? John Adams suggested that the continental army be formed and the colonies should declare independence
13 Washington was selected for two main reasons: 1.His prior military experience during the French and Indian War 2.He was from Virginia, and it seemed necessary to include Virginia in the military operations around the city of Boston Washington appointed General of the Continental Army
Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III. Congress declared its loyalty to the king. Congress asked the king to repeal the Intolerable Acts. The king was angry. He ordered more troops to the colonies. King George’s reaction convinced the colonists that peace and/or conciliation with Britain was not possible.