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Bellringer What is plant propagation?

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Presentation on theme: "Bellringer What is plant propagation?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellringer 4.28.14 What is plant propagation?
What is a plant that is propagated asexually? Why would a grower want to asexually propagate? Seedless grape, golden delicious, Ruby grapefruit, strawberry, spider plant. enables the production of a plant that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to cultivate because the plant does not produce viable seed or the seed is difficult to germinate. Plant may not breed true and when it is necessary to maintain certain genetic forms of the plant. Faster than propagation by seed. It may also be more economical to produce plants asexually, and in many cases it is easier.

2 Remember when you did this?
Plant Propagation Remember when you did this?

3 Now people do this.

4 What is plant propogation?
Plant propagation is the process of artificially or naturally propagating (distributing or spreading) plants

5 2 Types of Plant Propagation
Sexual propagation—involves the exchange of genetic material between parents to produce a new generation. Asexual propagation—does not involve exchange of genetic material, so it almost always produces plants that are identical to a single parent. Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. For all currently known living organisms, the genetic material is almost exclusively Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA. Some viruses use Ribonucleic Acid RNA as their genetic material.

6 What are the reasons for propagating plants asexually?
Asexual propagation in plants involves the reproduction of new plants using only the vegetative parts of the parent plant. This is made possible by the plant’s ability to regenerate missing plant parts.

7 Sexual Propagation Flower parts

8 Seeds are Formed by… Pollination:The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the female stigma by a pollinating agent such as wind, insects, birds, bats, or in a few cases the opening of the flower itself. Fertilization: The fusion of two gametes (sperm and ovum) to produce a zygote that develops into a new individual with a genetic heritage derived from both parents.

9 Pollinators

10 Germination of a Bean Seed
Seeds- A packaged plant surrounded by endosperm (food) and protective seed coat Germination of a Bean Seed

11 Asexual or Vegetative Propagation
Leaf Cuttings and Leaf-bud Cuttings Stem Cuttings Root Cuttings Division Layering Tip Layering Air Layering Grafting Bulbs, Corms, Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons

12 Cuttings Cuttings involve removing a piece from the parent plant and that piece then re-grows the lost parts or tissues. New plants can be grown from parts of plants because each living plant cell contains the ability to duplicate all plant parts and functions. Some plants will reproduce readily from cuttings and others take a considerable amount of time and care.

13 Leaf Cuttings- Use only the leaf
Vein cutting from leaf African violet Polarity: Which way is up? Stems form from the tip. Roots form from from the crown African violets, begonia, sedum Remember Polarity or which way is up! Leaf Section Cutting

14 How do leaf cuttings grow?
Origins of roots and shoots varies Meristem tissue - Group of embryonic cells that can differentiate and produce new cells Compounds trigger growth of roots and shoots Root apical meristematic tissue of onion Auxins, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Ethylene, and Absciisic Acid (ABA) Shoot apical meristematic tissue

15 Stem Cuttings- Use the stem and leaves or just the stem.
Cuttings should be 6-10” long & between nodes Dibble, then place cutting in soil

16 How Do Stem Cuttings Work?
How roots develop Response to wounding-induced differentiation Cells begin to divide Callus begins to form Certain cells begin to divide and initiate root development Dedifferentiation: Certain cells in the plant know whether or not to divide and produce roots or shoots when the cutting is taken

17 Stem Cuttings (cont’d.)
Preparing the cutting Planting the cutting

18 Root, Cane Cuttings- Uses roots or shoots
Blackberry root Cane cutting-Dracenas Cane cutting Stokesia Root

19 Bulbs- Specialized roots and stems
Bulbs- Underground organ with scales and basal plate 1. Tunicate- onion, garlic, daffodil, tulip 2. Non-Tunicate- Lily Tunicate dry outer coating to protect

20 Corms- Specialized roots and stems
Corms- Swollen base of stem axis, give rise to new bulblets Examples Gladiolus, Crocus Gladiolus corm with bulblets

21 Bulbs and Corms Bulbs can be propagated by removing small bulblets or offsets that form at the base of the parent bulb. See notes on bulbs vs. corms. Corm (Crocus) Bulb (Tulips)

22 Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons
Dahlia tuber Iris rhizome Rhizome grow horizontally and rise rise to new plants Stolon Potato Tuber

23 Tubers and Rhizomes Tuberous plants can be dug up and the tubers separated. In separating the tubers, each must have a segment of the crown that contains at least one eye or bud. Rhizomes grow and develop buds along their length. The rhizomes can be dug and cut into sections that each contain at least one eye or bud. Tubers Rhizomes

24 Separate roots to find individual plants and plant
Division- To separate a clump into individual plants-Used for perennials and some houseplants Plants with more than one rooted crown may be divided and the crowns planted separately. If the stems are not joined, gently pull the plants apart. If the crowns are united by horizontal stems, cut the stems and roots with a sharp knife to minimize injury. Divisions of some outdoor plants should be dusted with a fungicide before they are replanted. Separate roots to find individual plants and plant Dig up Mother Plant Clean off root ball Photos from Garden Gate Magazine

25 Divisions Division is the cutting or breaking up of a crown or clump of suckers into segments. Each segment must have a bud and some roots. These segments are replanted and grow into new plants identical to the parent. Carefully dig the plant, loosening the roots and lifting the plant from the soil.

26 Layering- Growing new plants while attached to the mother plant
Layering- Growing new plants while attached to the mother plant. They are later separated. Air layering Ground layering

27 Layering Layering causes roots to develop on shoots that are still attached to the parent plant. The stem is not cut from the main plant until it has rooted. Simple layering is done by bending a branch to the ground and burying a portion of it while the tip remains uncovered.

28 Grafting and Budding- Used to attach one plant to the other for strength or variety
Scion-part added Rootstock- bottom part Bud-grafting Whip Grafting

29 Grafting Grafting involves the joining of different segments of two different plants of the same species. Grafting allows gardeners to produce plants identical to a parent plant. It also allows growers to control size and shape of a tree or shrub. On the negative side, some grafting attempts will be rejected. Rejected grafting=called graft incompatibility.

30 Budding or Bud Grafting
Bud grafting is faster, easier and less messy than other forms of grafting. This method uses a newly developed latent bud, taken from under a live leaf. Budwood is collected from healthy branches that grew since spring and from young trees because they produce a large amounts of new growth. Use buds from the middle section of the branch.

31 How can I propagate my bulbs?
Tunicate Bulbs Cuttage (8 Sections) Non-tunicate Bulbs New bulbs form beside the originally planted bulb. Separate these bulb clumps every 3 to 5 years for largest blooms and to increase bulb population. Dig up the clump after the leaves have withered. Gently pull the bulbs apart and replant them immediately so their roots can begin to develop. Small, new bulbs may not flower for 2 or 3 years, but large ones should bloom the first year. Bulb Scales

32 When to propagate Late spring and early summer= optimal growing time
Depends on type of cutting Need to check resources for specific plants. Each one may have an optimal time Some seeds need to go through stratification or period of cold to break dormancy Some seeds need to be scarified or scratched

33 Propagation Environment
Aerial Environment Humidity Light Temperature Air quality Growing Medium Moisture level Aeration pH Nutrient level

34 Equipment and Hygiene- Keep everything clean so disease is not spread
Pruning knife Hand cutters Sterilize all tools with alcohol after use! Watering Can Liners and Light

35 Soil Purpose of soil Ingredients in soil
Larger particles (sand) holds plant in place Smaller particles hold water and nutrients Ingredients in soil Vermiculite= Holds moisture Perlite= Increases aeration Peat=Moisten –Helps stop decomposition Sand=Drainage Sphagnum Moss= Holds water well, lightweight Recipes and proportions vary depending on plant!

36 When can I plant it? Gently tug on the cutting to see if your plant has developed a good root system Repot in larger pot if necessary

37 Have fun and enjoy your new plants!

38 EXIT SLIP What are two advantages of asexual propagation?
Name a plant that can be propagated from a leaf cutting What is a meristem? Why are meristems important for propagation?

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