Presentation on theme: "Bellringer What is plant propagation?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Bellringer 4.28.14 What is plant propagation? What is a plant that is propagated asexually?Why would a grower want to asexually propagate?Seedless grape, golden delicious, Ruby grapefruit, strawberry, spider plant.enables the production of a plant that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to cultivate because the plant does not produce viable seed or the seed is difficult to germinate.Plant may not breed true and when it is necessary to maintain certain genetic forms of the plant.Faster than propagation by seed.It may also be more economical to produce plants asexually, and in many cases it is easier.
2 Remember when you did this? Plant PropagationRemember when you did this?
4 What is plant propogation? Plant propagation is the process of artificially or naturally propagating (distributing or spreading) plants
5 2 Types of Plant Propagation Sexual propagation—involves the exchange of genetic material between parents to produce a new generation.Asexual propagation—does not involve exchange of genetic material, so it almost always produces plants that are identical to a single parent.Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. For all currently known living organisms, the genetic material is almost exclusively Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA. Some viruses use Ribonucleic Acid RNA as their genetic material.
6 What are the reasons for propagating plants asexually? Asexual propagation in plants involves the reproduction of new plants using only the vegetative parts of the parent plant.This is made possible by the plant’s ability to regenerate missing plant parts.
8 Seeds are Formed by…Pollination:The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the female stigma by a pollinating agent such as wind, insects, birds, bats, or in a few cases the opening of the flower itself.Fertilization: The fusion of two gametes (sperm and ovum) to produce a zygote that develops into a new individual with a genetic heritage derived from both parents.
10 Germination of a Bean Seed Seeds- A packaged plant surrounded by endosperm (food) and protective seed coatGermination of a Bean Seed
11 Asexual or Vegetative Propagation Leaf Cuttings and Leaf-bud CuttingsStem CuttingsRoot CuttingsDivisionLayeringTip LayeringAir LayeringGraftingBulbs, Corms, Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons
12 CuttingsCuttings involve removing a piece from the parent plant and that piece then re-grows the lost parts or tissues.New plants can be grown from parts of plants because each living plant cell contains the ability to duplicate all plant parts and functions.Some plants will reproduce readily from cuttings and others take a considerable amount of time and care.
13 Leaf Cuttings- Use only the leaf Vein cutting from leafAfrican violetPolarity: Which way is up?Stems form from the tip. Roots form from from the crownAfrican violets, begonia, sedumRemember Polarity or which way is up!Leaf Section Cutting
14 How do leaf cuttings grow? Origins of roots and shoots variesMeristem tissue - Group of embryonic cells that can differentiate and produce new cellsCompounds trigger growth of roots and shootsRoot apical meristematic tissue of onionAuxins, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Ethylene, and Absciisic Acid (ABA)Shoot apical meristematic tissue
15 Stem Cuttings- Use the stem and leaves or just the stem. Cuttings should be 6-10” long & between nodesDibble, then place cutting in soil
16 How Do Stem Cuttings Work? How roots developResponse to wounding-induced differentiationCells begin to divideCallus begins to formCertain cells begin to divide and initiate root developmentDedifferentiation: Certain cells in the plant know whether or not to divide and produce roots or shoots when the cutting is taken
17 Stem Cuttings (cont’d.) Preparing the cuttingPlanting the cutting
19 Bulbs- Specialized roots and stems Bulbs- Underground organ with scales and basal plate1. Tunicate- onion, garlic, daffodil, tulip2. Non-Tunicate- LilyTunicate dry outer coating to protect
20 Corms- Specialized roots and stems Corms- Swollen base of stem axis, give rise to new bulbletsExamplesGladiolus,CrocusGladiolus corm with bulblets
21 Bulbs and CormsBulbs can be propagated by removing small bulblets or offsets that form at the base of the parent bulb.See notes on bulbs vs. corms.Corm (Crocus)Bulb (Tulips)
22 Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons Dahlia tuberIris rhizomeRhizome grow horizontally and rise rise to new plantsStolonPotato Tuber
23 Tubers and RhizomesTuberous plants can be dug up and the tubers separated.In separating the tubers, each must have a segment of the crown that contains at least one eye or bud.Rhizomes grow and develop buds along their length.The rhizomes can be dug and cut into sections that each contain at least one eye or bud.TubersRhizomes
24 Separate roots to find individual plants and plant Division- To separate a clump into individual plants-Used for perennials and some houseplantsPlants with more than one rooted crown may be divided and the crowns planted separately. If the stems are not joined, gently pull the plants apart. If the crowns are united by horizontal stems, cut the stems and roots with a sharp knife to minimize injury. Divisions of some outdoor plants should be dusted with a fungicide before they are replanted.Separate roots to find individual plants and plantDig up Mother PlantClean off root ballPhotos from Garden Gate Magazine
25 DivisionsDivision is the cutting or breaking up of a crown or clump of suckers into segments.Each segment must have a bud and some roots.These segments are replanted and grow into new plants identical to the parent.Carefully dig the plant, loosening the roots and lifting the plant from the soil.
26 Layering- Growing new plants while attached to the mother plant Layering- Growing new plants while attached to the mother plant. They are later separated.Air layeringGround layering
27 LayeringLayering causes roots to develop on shoots that are still attached to the parent plant.The stem is not cut from the main plant until it has rooted.Simple layering is done by bending a branch to the ground and burying a portion of it while the tip remains uncovered.
28 Grafting and Budding- Used to attach one plant to the other for strength or variety Scion-part addedRootstock- bottom partBud-graftingWhip Grafting
29 GraftingGrafting involves the joining of different segments of two different plants of the same species.Grafting allows gardeners to produce plants identical to a parent plant.It also allows growers to control size and shape of a tree or shrub.On the negative side, some grafting attempts will be rejected.Rejected grafting=called graft incompatibility.
30 Budding or Bud Grafting Bud grafting is faster, easier and less messy than other forms of grafting.This method uses a newly developed latent bud, taken from under a live leaf.Budwood is collected from healthy branches that grew since spring and from young trees because they produce a large amounts of new growth.Use buds from the middle section of the branch.
31 How can I propagate my bulbs? Tunicate BulbsCuttage (8 Sections)Non-tunicate BulbsNew bulbs form beside the originally planted bulb. Separate these bulb clumps every 3 to 5 years for largest blooms and to increase bulb population. Dig up the clump after the leaves have withered. Gently pull the bulbs apart and replant them immediately so their roots can begin to develop. Small, new bulbs may not flower for 2 or 3 years, but large ones should bloom the first year.Bulb Scales
32 When to propagate Late spring and early summer= optimal growing time Depends on type of cuttingNeed to check resources for specific plants. Each one may have an optimal timeSome seeds need to go through stratification or period of cold to break dormancySome seeds need to be scarified or scratched
34 Equipment and Hygiene- Keep everything clean so disease is not spread Pruning knifeHand cuttersSterilize all tools with alcohol after use!Watering CanLiners and Light
35 Soil Purpose of soil Ingredients in soil Larger particles (sand) holds plant in placeSmaller particles hold water and nutrientsIngredients in soilVermiculite= Holds moisturePerlite= Increases aerationPeat=Moisten –Helps stop decompositionSand=DrainageSphagnum Moss= Holds water well, lightweightRecipes and proportions vary depending on plant!
36 When can I plant it?Gently tug on the cutting to see if your plant has developed a good root systemRepot in larger pot if necessary