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Civil War Battles.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil War Battles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil War Battles

2 President of the United States of America
Abraham Lincoln President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis ABRAHAM LINCOLN: Republican candidate for President in 1860; from Illinois; became a national figure following a race for the Senate from Illinois in 1854; Was committed to preserving the Union; claimed that he did not want to abolish slavery where it already existed but did not want it to spread to the newly acquired territories JEFFERSON DAVIS: served in the U.S. Army during the Mexican War and in the U.S. Senate; named president of the Confederacy in February 1861 by representatives from the seceded states at a convention in Montgomery, Alabama; would be the only president of the Confederate States of America; Abraham Lincoln President of the United States during the Civil War Against Slavery but was willing to keep it to preserve the “Union.” Used the army to arrest many pro-secession politicians in Maryland so he could save Washington D.C. as the U.S. capital. President Lincoln’s 4 brother-in-laws were Confederates. He was the 1st president to wear a beard. Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy during the Civil War The first Capital of the confederacy was Montgomery, Alabama. When Virginia seceded the Capital of the Confederacy was Richmond, Virginia

3 General of the Confederacy
General of the Union Ulysses S. Grant General of the Confederacy Robert E. Lee ULYSSES S. GRANT: named commander of the Union Army following the failed leadership of McClellan, Burnside and Hooker; had gained fame leading Union troops in the west; was considered a brilliant general because he was willing to pursue and fight Lee where the generals had failed to do so ROBERT E. LEE: military leader from Virginia; resigned from the United States Army and joined the Confederacy out of loyalty to his home state which had seceded from the Union; opposed slavery and secession; became commanding general of the Army of Northern Virginia Robert E. Lee In 1862 Lee took over the Confederate army. Born in Virginia Fought for the U.S. in the Mexican American War. Lee privately ridiculed the Confederacy in letters in early 1861, denouncing secession as "revolution" and a betrayal of the efforts of the Founding Fathers. Resigned from U.S. army to join the Confederacy because Virginia seceded

4 First Shots: Ft. Sumter On April 12, the Rebel, or Confederate, troops fired the first shots on Yankee, or Union, troops stationed at Fort Sumter, South Carolina The Civil War had begun! Over the next four years, 600,000 Americans would die

5 Commander in Chief of the Texas military forces
Government in Texas Governor: Edward Clark (ad-interim after Houston was removed) First elected governor: Francis Lubbock ( ) : Pendleton Murrah John Reagan: Texas democratic party leader What was the governor’s main job? Commander in Chief of the Texas military forces

6 Texas Soldiers 60,000-70,000 soldiers fought Volunteer Units
Hood’s Texas Brigade—John Bell Hood Terry’s Texas Rangers—Benjamin Terry Ross’ Brigade—Lawrence “Sul” Ross HOOD’S TEXAS BRIGADE Led by John Bell Hood Fought in many battles in Virginia Robert E. Lee called Hood’s men his “finest soldiers” Created on October 22, 1861 and was a major part of the Army of Northern Virginia Of the 5,353 men who enlisted in these regiments, only 617 survived to the surrender TERRY’S TEXAS RANGERS Organized in Houston on September 9, 1861 with just over 1,000 men, most enlisting for the “duration of the war” and left Texas for Kentucky and Tennessee Fought in more battles than any other cavalry regiment Officially known as the 8th Texas Cavalry Regiment LAWRENCE SULLIVAN ROSS Led Ross’s Brigade that fought in Georgia, Mississippi (including Vicksburg), and Tennessee

7 Nearly 70,000 men from Texas fought for the Confederacy.
The most famous group was the Texas Brigade led by John Bell Hood which fought in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. “Texan’s always move them!!!” -Robert E. Lee At the battle of the Wilderness in 1864 Texans in the War John Bell Hood John Rip Ford photo courtacy of Texas Beyond History, Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin

8 President of the Confederacy
Texas Soldiers Many Texans volunteered to fight, but the Confederacy needed more men If we want to win this war, we need more men to fight! It’s time to start a draft Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy

9 Texas Soldiers Draft: the enlisting of persons for required service in the armed forces Men were forced to fight—but some were allowed to stay at home I don’t have to fight because I own slaves I don’t want to fight! Slave owner with more than 20 slaves Angry Texan

10 Many Texans fought in the Civil War but not many battles were fought in Texas

11 The Anaconda Plan: The Union’s plan for winning the war
Blockade Southern Ports: cut off trade of cotton and delivery of supplies Control the Mississippi River: this would cut the Confederacy in two (Texas and Louisiana would be cut off from everyone) Capture the capital of Richmond, VA: and force the government to surrender Squeeze and trap the Confederate army from the West and the North (see map)

12 Anaconda Plan to take over Confederacy

13 Battle of Galveston Galveston=important port
Oct Union soldiers took over Galveston after Lincoln ordered blockade Jan Confederates recapture Galveston Confederate Gen. John B. Magruder commanded forces that attacked & were victorious Thomas Green = military leader who assisted Confederate victory Significance: Texas remained in control of Galveston for the rest of the war

14 Emancipation Proclamation
Early in 1863, in the middle of fighting, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation This document freed the slaves in the Confederacy

15 SABINE PASS, TX Sept. 8, 1863 Union forces attacked Fort Griffin which was defended by a Confederate unit called the Davis Guards Union attempted to move troops through the pass—these troops would then cut off Texas’ railroad connection to Louisiana Confederate victory helped restore southern confidence Significance: Union did not cut off Texas’ railroad connection to Louisiana EXPLAIN THE EVENTS SURROUNDING THE BATTLE OF SABINE PASS USING PG IN THE TEXAS HISTORY TEXTBOOK. Union wanted to regain control of Galveston after losing it in January 1863 Planned to invade Texas through Sabine Pass, march overland to Houston and then capture Galveston Confederate forces at Sabine Pass were led by Lieutenant Richard Dowling Fort Griffin was surrounded by trenches and earthen mounds and had 6 cannons/Davis Guards were able to fire fast and accurately Union General William Franklin planned to use gunboats to destroy the Fort Griffin cannons but was unable to because Davis Guards crippled the two gunboats and forced the other Union ships to turn back

16 Battle of Brownsville November 2-6, 1863
Cotton transported to Mexico through Brownsville Union soldiers occupied this town and enforced a blockade Significance: the South could not ship cotton  lose money

17 Richmond, VA vs. Washington D.C.
In 1864, Union’s Grant and Confederate’s Lee fought fiercely, mostly in the 90 miles between these two capital cities After a year long siege of Virginia, Grant captured and burned Confederate capital of Richmond, VA (March, 1865) The Rebels had little chance of winning: They were running out of food, weapons, ammunition, and medicine for the wounded

18 Appomattox Courthouse: END!
After Richmond, VA fell, Robert E. Lee and his soldiers fled to the mountains On April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, General Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant

19 Lincoln Assassinated During the war there were many attempts on his life On April 15th, 1865*, while he was at a play, John Wilkes Booth was finally successful

20 Palmito Ranch May 12, 1865—last battle of the civil war
Palmito Ranch located along Rio Grande Confederate victory but…Confederacy had already surrendered to the Union! Confederate General E. Kirby Smith urged soldiers in Texas to continue fighting even after learning of Lee’s surrender Confederate forces led by Col. John S. Ford clashed with Union troops when they moved inland to occupy Brownsville Confederate force defeated the Union force but later the two sides arranged a truce

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