2 Chapter 5:Natural Laws and Car Control GRAVITYIs the force that pulls all things to Earth.UPHILL DRIVING- Gravity will slow your car down when going uphill, unless you use extra power.DOWNHILL DRIVING- Gravity will increase your speed going downhill unless you control it.0Pk
3 TREAD and TRACTION Tread The grooved surface of a tire that grips the road.Allows water to flow through the grooves and away from the tire.This action allows the tire tread to cut through the water and grip the road.
4 TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE TSD= The distance your car travels while you make a stop.T = P + RT + BDTotal Stopping Dist = Perception + Reaction Time + Braking Dist.Perception: The length of time you take to identify, predict, and decide to slow.Reaction Time: The length of time it takes for you to execute your action.Braking Distance: The distance your car travels from the time you apply the brakes.
5 PACKET WORK: 1. In pairs, complete the chart on pg 1 of your packet. 2 PACKET WORK: 1. In pairs, complete the chart on pg 1 of your packet. 2. Pg.2: Use the chart in your book on pg.98 and the information in your packet to describe TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE in complete sentences!!
6 STEERING YOUR VEHCILE Steering Straight Forward: Hands in a comfortable, balanced position at 9 & 3Look ahead into your intended path of travel.
7 Hold the brake pedal down and shift to REVERSE. Steering Straight Backwards: Driving backward involves knowing where to look and how to control direction and speed. Before backing, make sure your rear zones are clear.Hold the brake pedal down and shift to REVERSE.Turn your body to the right, and put your right arm over the back of the passenger seat, Look back through the rear window.Put your left hand at the top of the steering wheel at the 12 o’clock position.Release pressure on the brake just enough to allow the vehicle to creep backward slowly.While looking back through the rear window, move top of the steering wheel in the direction you want the back of the vehicle to go.Keep your foot over the brake pedal while your vehicle is moving backward. Glance quickly to the front and sides to check traffic. Continue to look back through the rear window as you brake and stop. Quick backing video
8 What’s the point?????? Answer in at least 2 complete sentences. SIGNALINGWhat’s the point?????? Answer in at least 2 complete sentences.When making a left or right hand turn in a business or residential district, a continuous signal to turn must be given…..No less than 100 feet before turning!!!!
9 If your turn signals or brake lights are not working, you must use proper hand signals to communicate your intentions to other roadway users.
10 HAND OVER HAND STEERING Hands in Start pulling down Release the left balanced 9&3 with the left hand and cross it over & up and over with the right, and the right continue pulling downTo straighten the wheel you can either relax your grip on the wheel to let it slide through your hands or unwind using the hand over hand process.hand position and hand over hand
11 Making Left and Right Turns Making Turns: Requires steering control, speed control and good visual habits.Make sure to make a left or right turn only after checking all traffic. Take these precautions when executing turns:Look for pedestrians and oncoming vehicles, Check rear zones for vehicles about to pass you.
12 Plan turns well in advance Plan turns well in advance. Be in the correct lane about one block before your turn.Obey all traffic signs, singles, and roadway markings. Remember you must yield to oncoming traffic when you are turning left.left and right hand turns
14 Steps or making a right turn Begin turning the wheel when your car’s front bumper is even with the curb line
15 Steps for making a left turn: Begin turning the wheel just before the front of the car reaches the center of the intersection.
16 Turning the VehicleTurnabouts: Turning your car around to go in the opposite direction.All turnabouts are high-risk maneuvers!Take these precautions when making a turnabout:1. Be sure local laws permit the turnabout. (check for signs)2. Select a site with at least 500 feet of visibility in each direction.3. Do not make a turnabout near hills or curves or within 200 feet of intersections.4. Never attempt a turnabout in heavy, high-speed traffic.5. Continually check all zones for traffic and pedestrians
17 Midblock U-Turn:Make sure state laws permit this type of turn. You need a wide space to make a U-Turn. This is risky because you have to cross lanes of traffic to execute it.
18 Steps for making a midblock U-turn on a 2-way road. Check your front and rear zones, signal right, pull to the far right, and stop.Signal left and move toward location # 2.Check front and left-rear zones, check left blind spot, turn sharply left and move toward location #3. Don’t stop if you have enough space to complete the turn.Move slowly to location #4, check all zones, and straighten out your wheels while you accelerate gently into the proper lane.
19 Check front and rear zones. Signal right and stop close to the curb. Three-Point Turns: Are high-risk because you cross traffic lanes AND are stopped across traffic lane.Check front and rear zones. Signal right and stop close to the curb.Search front and rear zones (including over your left shoulder). Signal left, turn wheel sharply to the left and move to location 3 before hitting the curb. Once there, straighten wheels.
20 3. Check all zones for traffic, turn wheels sharply right while backing slowly to location 4. Back only as far as necessary tom complete the maneuver and before hitting the curb. Stop with your wheel straight. 4. Check all zones for traffic, signal left, then move slowly forward while steering left toward location 5 3pt turnVideo
21 ParkingDefine the vocabulary below in your won words. These words can be found on page 119 in your book.VOCABULARY Pg 119DEFINITIONReference PointStandard Reference PointPersonal Reference Point
22 In parking lots and shopping centers Angel ParkingWhere do you think angle parking is often used?In parking lots and shopping centers
23 Angle Parking Steps to follow in completing Angle Parking: Check for traffic and pedestrians Position vehicle at least 6 feet from the row of parked cars. Signal a right turn, check traffic to the rear, and begin braking.Check your right blind spot and continue braking.Creep forward until you can see the center of the space without your line of sight cutting across the parking line. Turn your wheel sharply to the right and slowly enter the parking spot.Straighten the wheels when you are centered in the space. Make sure your front bumper is even with the curb or parking line.
24 Perpendicular Parking Use when parking to park your vehicle at a right angle to the curb.
25 Signal a right turn, check your right blind spot, and begin to brake. Perpendicular Parking.Steps to follow when completing perpendicular parking:Position your vehicle at least 8 feet from the row of parked vehicles, or as far left of the lane as possible and begin to brake.Signal a right turn, check your right blind spot, and begin to brake.Check traffic to the rear, and continue braking.When your front bumper passes the left rear taillight of the vehicle to the right of the empty parking space turn your wheel sharply to the right. Check your right-rear fender for clearance.Straighten your wheel when you are centered in the space.
26 Parallel ParkingUse parallel parking to park your vehicle parallel to the curb.Select a space that is 5-6 feet longer than your vehicle.
27 During your maneuver, the front of your vehicle will swing far to the left. Check over your left shoulder to be sure this needed space is clear.
28 Parallel Parking Steps to Follow When Completing Parallel Parking: Flash brake lights, and signal a right turn. Stop two to three feet away from the front of the vehicle with the two rear bumper even. Shift to Reverse, look back over your right shoulder, and back slowly as you turn right.When the back of your seat is even with the rear bumper of the front vehicle, straighten the wheels.When your front bumper is even with the front vehicle’s back bumper, turn your wheels sharply left.When your vehicle is parallel to the curb, straighten wheels and stopParallel Parking
29 Steps to Follow When Leaving a Parallel Parking Space: Back straight slowly until your rear bumper almost touches the vehicle behind. Turn wheel sharply to the left.Signal left turn. Check your left blind spot.Check the right-front corner of your vehicle for clearance.Turn your wheels to the right when you are halfway out of the parking space. Scan zones and then proceed into traffic lanes.Parallel Parking
30 PARKINGUphill Parking with a Curb 1. Position your vehicle close to the curb. Just before stopping, turn the steering wheel to the left. 2. Shift to neutral; let the vehicle creep back until the back of the right-front tires gently touches the curb. 3. Shift to park, and set the parking brake. 4. When leaving the parking space signal, check traffic, and accelerate into the lane of traffic.
31 PARKING Uphill Parking With No Curb Pull as far off the roadway as possible. Turn the wheel to the right.Shift to park, and set the parking brake.When leaving the parking space, let the vehicle creep backward while straightening the wheels. Signal and check traffic. Shift to drive, and accelerate into traffic.PARKINGUphill without a curb
32 PARKING Downhill Parking WITH and WITHOUT Curb 1. Position your vehicle close to the curb and stop.2. Let the vehicle creep forward slowly while turning the steering wheel the right. Let the front-right tire rest gently against the curb.3. Shift to park, and set the parking brake.4. When leaving check traffic and back short distance while straightening the wheels. Signal, check traffic again, and shift into drive.downhill parkingPARKING
33 Ch 12. Driving in Adverse Conditions Reduced VisibilityWhenever visibility is reduced drivers need more time to use the IPDE Process. You can maintain a safe intend path or travel by……..Slowing down to give yourself more time.Scanning in and around your path of travel to the target area to identify hazardsPredicting others will make maneuvers into your intended path of travel.Deciding where to position your vehicle ahead of time with extra space around it.Ch 12. Driving in Adverse Conditions
34 Visibility While Driving Can create severe and blinding conditions.Sun glasses and a sun visor can help.SUN GLAREThe brightest daywill create thedarkest shadow,with severe glaresituations behind you, so be prepared for other drivers to miss seeing your signal or even seeing your vehicle.Driving with low-beam head lights on all the time will help other drivers see you
35 Visibility While Driving HEADLIGHTSUse high beam headlights to look beyond your headlights for important information.Only use high beam headlights when vehicles are more than one-half mile in front of you.Use low-beam headlights in snow, heavy rain, or fog.Using high-beam headlights will reflect more light back into your eyes, as a result, you will see less.Make sure to use your low-beam headlights when you are driving in the rain. (Most states require your low-bema headlights to be when on using your wipers).During snow use your low-beam headlights day or night.High beam vs low beam videoVisibility While Driving
36 Reduced TractionRAIN WHILE DRIVING:When rain first begins to fall, it mixes with dust and oil on the road. This mix can make the road very slippery.HYDROPLANING: When a tire rises up on top of the water and no longer has contact with the road. (you car is water skiing!! YIKES)crazy hydroplaning crashesShore-Drive html
37 Use properly inflated tires with good tread. How to Avoid HydroplaningReduce speedUse properly inflated tires with good tread.When driving at a low speed through water, apply light brake pressure with your left foot while the right is still on the accelerator. This builds friction/heat on the brakes pads.Hydroplaning Video
38 SNOW: If possible, do not drive in extreme weather conditions DRIVING TECHNIQUES: Gentle acceleration, steering, and braking are keys to vehicle control in snow.ICE:Ice on Bridges:Bridge roadways tend to freeze before other roadways surfaces. Cold air circulates above and below the roadway on bridges and overpasses. So there may be ice even if other areas are clear.Black iceForms in thin sheets. Be extra careful for this type of ice in winter situations.Ice in tire tracksSnow can pack down into ice in the normal driving tracks. Avoid this by moving a little to the right side of the lanedriving in ice and snowSnow and Ice
39 ice + snow + hill = no control! Snow and IceRemember breaking distance will always increase in low-traction situations. Slow early and then be ready to slow even more.ice + snow + hill = no control!Can you think of other road types that might interfere with traction while driving?Gravel RoadsLeavesConstruction areas
40 Skidding Over- Braking Skid In extreme traction situations, your tires may lose all or part of their grip on the road.SkiddingOver- Braking SkidIf your vehicle doesn’t have an antilock brake system (ABS) and you over-brake, the wheels may stop while you are still moving. To correct this release your brake pedal enough to get your wheels rolling. Does your family car have ABS? how to safely drive in winter
41 Skidding Front-Wheel Skid When your steering wheel and your vehicle wants to slide straight ahead. To correct this you need to regain traction for steering. You do this by:Releasing the accelerator or brake pedal pressureQuickly apply and release the brake pedal to slow if your vehicle does not have ABSContinue to look and steer at the path of travel you want to follow.
42 OTHER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDISTIONS HOT WEATHER REAR WHEEL SKID: If the rear end of your vehicle starts to skid, you should turn your wheels in the direction of the skid.OTHER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDISTIONS HOT WEATHERYour temperature light gauge indicates when your engine is too hot. When this happens, turn off your air conditioner. You can also cool your engine by turning on your heater.NEVER remove the radiator cap on a hot engine because the hot liquid inside can scald you. this is why!!!
43 COLD WEATHERCarbon monoxide gas is created when your engine runs sooooooooooo…….If you are stuck in the snow with your engine running, make sure your exhaust pipe is not blocked.Ice or slush to the underside of your vehicle can freeze your parking brake when you park your vehicle