Presentation on theme: "Institutional Framework on Sustainable Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Institutional Framework on Sustainable Development Has Rio mattered for India? Agreements and Achievements in Sustainable DevelopmentLigia Noronha TERIWorkshop onInstitutional Framework on Sustainable DevelopmentInternational Centre for Environment Audit and Sustainable Development, (iCED)Jaipur28 September 2011
2 Sustainable development A development path is sustainable if it meets needs of the present without compromising the ability to do the same in future.Sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological and institutional change enhance not merely the current but the future potential to meet basic needs.Needs are socially and culturally determined and the only definition that is sustainable is one which is accepted by the people themselves.Requires that:the basic needs of all persons should be met.The affluent everywhere aim at consumption standards which, in time if not immediately, can be reached by everyone and which are within the bounds of the ecological possible.A society’s ability to meet basic needs be maximized both by building up its sustainable productive potential and by institutional arrangements which offer a more equitable access to resources and livelihood opportunities.Long before these limits are reached the concerned community should (a) ensure equitable access to the constrained resource and (b) reorient its technological efforts to relieve the pressure on the constraint.The elements in natural systems critical for the maintenance of life be identified and all human activities be oriented so as to avoid endangering these elements locally, regionally or globally.Nitin Desai, W0152c/ND/es/
3 Sustainable development Wide acceptability of conceptBut inadequate political commitmentAs a goal and mission of countless organizationsFuzziness of the concept which interestingly allows consensus buildingProvides a common languageUnifying core - built around needs, ecological limits, and social acceptabilityLong term, beyond electoral cyclesRequires cross sectoral thinkingBut silos mentality; protection of turfNeeds recognition of trade offs;Everything is a not a win winRequires burden sharing
4 What do we mean when we speak of SD? The paradigmThe interfacesInvolves not just economic efficiency but also social justice, environmental stewardshipEmpowerment of social groups in decision-makingPeople and expert directed policiesIntegrated planningDecentralization in policy-making and implementationPeople as actorsEx ante preventive actionReliance also on incentive based systemsIncomparable values need to be observedLonger horizons; scenarios; uncertainty built inInternalization of external costsKnowledge supplements scienceSocio-ecological multi attribute assessments usedParticipatory and process oriented procedures to environmental management
6 About key international institutions working on SD issues UN system does not lack institutions to deliver on sustainable development. What it does lack is coordination and coherence within the system.CSD has become a negotiating forum, not dialogic enough to bring various stakeholders together on contested issuesUNEP should not hanker for political space and power. Instead, it should focus on strengthening its current functions, as an ‘implementing agency’; and as a ‘coordinating agency’ that helps in clustering of MEAs and REAs.ECOSOC is incomplete without an environmental armMEAs lack coherence and need more national implementation.
7 State of the worldThe MDG report 2011 suggests that reaching all the MDGs by 2015 will be a challenge as the most vulnerable are still beyond reach. This is especially so in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia.There are still 1.2 billion very poor people (those living on less than $1 a day) and 40% of the world’s population still lives on less than $2/day;The worlds’ richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million, the average income in the richest 20 countries is 37 times that in the poorest 20 – a ratio that has doubled in the past 40 years;More than 1 billion people in low- and middle-income countries lack access to safe water, 1.4 billion have no access to electricity , and 2 billion lack adequate sanitation ;Two-thirds of all fisheries are exploited at or beyond their sustainable limits, and half or more of the world’s coral reefs may perish in this century.Three of nine interlinked planetary boundaries (rate of biodiversity loss, climate change and human interference with the nitrogen cycle), have already been overstepped as per recent estimates.
8 New and emerging challenges Transnational risks such as communicable disease, climate change, water conflicts, energy security, cyber security, and terrorismSince 2008, we have witnessed high financial volatility and uneven growth performance which has increased social distributive tensions.Increased burden of disease in developing countries, estimated between 25-25%, attributed to environmental causes. Risks are linked to poverty, gender and social factors.Many of these security concerns, serious enough on their own, also have inter linkages, e.g., food-energy-water, climate-energy-securityAn increasing international development and environmental commitments’ funding gap: estimated in the range of $ bn/ year between 2012 and 2017 ( $156 bn for climate change, $ bn for ODA).A reduced multilateralism
9 Global Partnerships will depend on commitment of nations to development CDI, 2010Source:
10 India’s engagement with international sustainable development Active engagement with the concept since it first came into useEngaged with many of its own challenges; but has many innovations to offer the international communityResponses to Climate change are ensconced in the “common but differentiated responsibility” principleA wide array of laws, policies and programmes that address SD issues. Some key ones at the interface
11 India and International Agreements India has been in the forefront of international agreements.WTO Agreement (1995),RTA with ASEAN (2009),Bilateral Investments Promotion and Protection Act (BIPAs),Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (1968),International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1979), Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, 1993), CConvention on the Rights of a ChildIndia is one of the founding members of the ILO
12 Major Environmental agreements India is a party to Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, designated 25 wetland sites in India as Ramsar Sites of International ImportanceCITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and FaunaMontreal Protocol under the Vienna Convention on substances that deplete the ozone layer, 1987Three Chemical ConventionsBasel Convention on trans-boundary movement of hazardous wastes, 1989Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (entered into force from 2004)Rio ConventionsConvention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1992United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992 and Kyoto ProtocolUnited Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
13 Indian laws at the SD interfaces Socio-ecological (environment and social)Key ActsPublic Liability Insurance Act, 1991National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997National Green Tribunal Act, 2010Social equity (economic and social)Person with Disabilities Act, 1995(right to employment of the disabled)The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Right Act, 2001The Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007Green economy (economic and environment)Energy Conservation Act, 2001The Electricity Act, 2003Sustainable development (social, environment and economic)The (Wildlife Protection Act), 1972 and its amendments in 1991, 2002Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas Act, 1996Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and the Biological Diversity Rules, 2004National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005Forests Rights Act, 2006
14 India’s policies/programmes at the interfaces Social equity (economic and social)Key Policies and ProgrammesRural Infrastructure Development Fund, 1995Annapurna Scheme,Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, 2007Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme, 2007Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme, 2009Socio-ecological (environment and social)National Agricultural Policy, 2002National Urban Sanitation Policy, 2008Integrated Watershed Management Programme, 2009Green economy (economic and environment)Technological Upgradation Fund Schemes, 1999Fodder and Feed Development Scheme, 2005Integrated Energy Policy of 2008Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT)Sustainable development (social, environment and economic)Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, 2005National Urban Transport Policy, 2006National Environmental Policy, 2006National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, 2007National Action Plan on Climate Change, 2008National Disaster Management Policy, 2009National Rural Livelihood Mission, 2009
15 Economic Achievements 7.2% GDP growth rate in the past decade with an 8.25% GDP growth rate between toShifts in economic structure– declining share of agriculture in the GDP, rise in share of industry and services in the last two decades.MSME sector : 26 million units and employs about 60 million people, contributing to about 8% of GDP, 45% of manufactured output and 40% export (Economic Survey )FDI inflows increased from 148 million USD in to 18,800 million USD inExports increased from 6.2% in to 12% inImportant policies, programmes and legal framework put in place: Industrial Policy Statement (1991), National Rural Livelihood Mission, Right to Information Act (2005), National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005), Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Mission (2005), Public Liability Insurance Act (1991), etc.
16 Economic ChallengesInfrastructure shortages, particularly in the rural areasEmployment opportunities in urban areas higher than rural areas-- leading to high levels of rural-urban migrationUrban population growing at a faster rate than rural population causing a huge divide.High levels of inflation in the countryHigh fiscal deficits; need to restructure spending patterns based on identified priorities.Strengthening of financial reforms to channel savings effectively into investment, meet funding requirements for infrastructure and enhance financial stability
17 Social AchievementsProcess of a demographic transition from high fertility, high mortality to low fertility, low mortality rates--population growth declined from 2.2 in 1994 to 1.9 in 2001.Fertility rate reduced from 3.9 in 1990 to 2.8 in 2010; life expectancy increased from 55.9 in 1991 to 63.5 inLiteracy rate increased from 52.2% in 1991 to 74.4 in 2011.Sex ratio gone up from 927 in 1991 to 940 in 2011Number of people with water supply facilities increased from 78% in 1981 to 91% in 2004.Financial inclusion being encouraged for social and economic upliftment of the disadvantaged and vulnerable.Important policies, programmes and legal framework put in place: National Agricultural Policy, National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (2008), Integrated Rural Development Programme (1970s), Education for All Campaign (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan), National Rural Health Mission (2005), National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM, 2009) National Policy for Empowerment of Women (2001), CEDAW (2003), Public Liability Insurance Act (1991)
18 Social ChallengesNot able to achieve most MDGs related to health indicators--mostly due to inadequate access to public sector health facilities and the quality at which it is supplied.Decline in child sex ratio to 914 in lowest since independence.High urban-rural disparities in terms of people living below poverty line, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, literacy, etc.Need to focus on quality and access to education in the country more than running after numbers.The proportion of population that has dietary energy consumption below 2100/2400 kcal in India seen to rise since 1987‐88 with about 64% below the norm in 1987‐ 88 increasing to 76% in 2004‐05 (figure may be higher with rising food prices in last 2 years).
19 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Goal No.GoalProgress1Eradicate Extreme Poverty and HungerSlow or Off Track2Achieve Universal Primary EducationOn Track or Fast3Promote Gender Equality and Empower WomenModerately on Track4Reduce Child Mortality5Improve Maternal Health6Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other DiseasesModerate to Slow Track7Ensure Environmental SustainabilityOn track to Off Track Depending on the Indicators8Develop a Global Partnership for DevelopmentOn track
20 Underweight children40% of children < 3 yrs will be underweight by 2015 as compared to target of 26.8%Key reasons: inadequate breastfeeding, micronutrient inadequacies, absence of child and maternity benefits, poverty, nutrition education,Source:MOSPI, India Country Report 2009, MDG civil society report, 2010
21 Infant (under five) mortality UN5 mortality can come down to 70/1000 live births as against target of 42/1000key reasonspneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, malaria and neonatal conditions that occur during pregnancy and during or immediately after birth.Lack of health care, maternal and child malnutrition and poor environmental health conditionsSource: GOI, India Country Report 2009, MDG civil society report, 2010
22 Maternal healthMMR is expected to come to 135/100,000 as compared to 109 targetKey reasons: main causes of maternal deaths are as follows: Haemorrhage (38%), Sepsis (11%) and Abortions (8%), Obstructed Labour (5%), Hypertensive Disorder (5%) and other conditions (34%) (p 61 of MDG Report)Maternal malnutrition is another key issue (RGI, 2006)Source: MOSPI, India Country Report 2009, MDG civil society report, 2010
23 Access to water, sanitation, clean energy Rural-urban divideGender-poverty energy nexusEven where infrastructure exists, service delivery is poorSource: TERI, 2009
24 Bottlenecks to achieving MDGs Sheer scale of the goalsGovernance constraintsCapacity & resourcesCoordinationOther priorities?Extreme events in some statesFalling external assistanceIndia’s external assistance as a percentage to total GDPSource: Economic survey, 2009, IMF Economic database, 2010
25 Environment Achievements Increase in forest and tree cover by 728 km2 and 1106 km2 respectively in 2009 as compared to 2005; 21 percent of geographical area under forest cover.According to the State Forest Report 2009, in the last 10 years, forest cover in the country has increased by 3.31 million hectares, showing an average 0.46% increase every year.Energy intensity (total primary energy supply with respect to GDP) declined over time. For , it was estimated at 1.08 while the same for to was estimated to be 0.82.Last ten years has seen close to 180,000 rural habitations being connected to all weather roads in the country.India has also become one of the Clean Development Mechanism project host countries in the world with projects being undertaken at various levels.Important policies, programmes and legal framework put in place: National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC, 2008), State Action Plan on Climate Change, Joint Forest Management Act (1990), Biological Diversity Act (2002), Environment (Protection) Act (1986), National Environmental Tribunal Act (1998), eight NAPCC missions, etc.XIII th Finance Commission recognizes that environment is a shared legacy with future generations, and makes a beginning in introducing an environmental dimension into intergovernmental fiscal arrangements.
26 Environmental Challenges Poor urban air quality in all Indian cities due to increasing vehicular fleet, industrial expansion, etc.Water availability, land and food security a rising concern in the country.Energy security (electricity and fuel) is still a huge problem. Energy poverty is a growing problem, specially in rural areas and it has major health implications.Unsustainable patterns of consumption and productionIncrease in solid waste and e-wasteClimate change, natural disasters and hazards risksSlow diffusion of climate and environmental friendly technologiesConservative estimates suggest that environmental degradation takes a toll of about 4% of India’s GDP (morbidity due to unclean air and water, productivity loss due to degraded land and forests) and over 800,000 premature deaths (due to air and water pollution).
27 Example: SD issues around the Western Ghats - a biodiversity hotspot Some Questions that we have been confronted with from stakeholders, , WGEEP and GoaWhy should mining not be banned to arrest the further loss of cultural and biological diversity and destruction of the ecology of the Western Ghats? (WGEEP)Why should mining be privileged over other land, waterways, forests and groundwater uses/users?How have/are the intergenerational questions around mineral depletion been addressed?Why is there so much illegal mining? Who is doing anything about it?What about the corruption at all levels of jurisdiction?
28 Regulatory coordination deficits Strong set of environmental rules and regulations in place, butEIAs are fraudulent; Conditions of Environmental clearance are not observedDiscrete, stand alone EIAs when cumulative impact studies of development are neededNot enough capacity at SPCB levelAbsence of local monitoring institutionsPoor redressal of people’s concernsGovernment machinery is perceived skewed in favour of corporates.Lack of knowledge of ground realities in villages where several developments are taking placeIllegal activities: logging, hunting, mining
29 Strengthening sustainable development governance - what can ICED do Provide improved environmental accounting to support informed policy making and policy engagementDraw attention to niche areas (co-benefits)Analyse regulatory deficitsHelp improve benefit sharing of development projectsWork towards environment and resource adjusted income accountingCreation of Incentives for conservation and innovationsPayments for ecosystem servicesReward good corporate/state performanceEncourage green innovationsData bases need to be developed which can support regulation and good development planning, for example spatial data bases.