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An Overview of the Financial System

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1 An Overview of the Financial System
Fundamentals of Finance – Lecture 2

2 Outline of the lecture Financial Markets Financial Intermediaries
Economic Analysis of Financial Structure Economic Analysis of Financial Regulation

3 Function Structure Instruments
Financial Markets Function Structure Instruments When we have money we can easily postpone a payment (or make it in advance) which gives rise to a whole new world – the world of finance. Today we’ll make a short overview of the financial system by looking somewhat deeper into financial markets and financial instruments=

4 Function of Financial Markets
Perform the essential function of channeling funds from economic players that have saved surplus funds to those that have a shortage of funds Direct finance: borrowers borrow funds directly from lenders in financial markets by selling them securities Promotes economic efficiency by producing an efficient allocation of capital, which increases production Directly improve the well-being of consumers by allowing them to time purchases better Financial markets perform the essential economic function of channeling funds from households, firms, and governments that have saved surplus funds by spending less than their income to those that have a shortage of funds because they wish to spend more than their income. This function is shown schematically in next slide. Those who have saved and are lending funds, the lender-savers, are at the left, and those who must borrow funds to finance their spending, the borrower-spenders, are at the right. The principal lender-savers are households, but business enterprises and the government (particularly state and local government), as well as foreigners and their governments, sometimes also find themselves with excess funds and so lend them out.

5 Flows of Funds Through the Financial System
The most important borrower-spenders are businesses and the government, but households and foreigners also borrow to finance their purchases of cars, furniture, and houses. The arrows show that funds flow from lender-savers to borrower-spenders via two routes. In direct finance (the route at the bottom of the Figure , borrowers borrow funds directly from lenders in financial markets by selling them securities (also called financial instruments), which are claims on the borrower’s future income or assets. Securities are assets for the person who buys them but liabilities (IOUs or debts) for the individual or firm that sells (issues) them. For example, if General Motors needs to borrow funds to pay for a new factory to manufacture electric cars, it might borrow the funds from savers by selling them bonds, debt securities that promise to make payments periodically for a specified period of time. Why is this channeling of funds from savers to spenders so important to the economy? The answer is that the people who save are frequently not the same people who have profitable investment opportunities available to them, the entrepreneurs. That’s why financial markets have such an important function in the economy. They allow funds to move from people who lack productive investment opportunities to people who have such opportunities. Thus financial markets are critical for producing an efficient allocation of capital, which contributes to higher production and efficiency for the overall economy. Well-functioning financial markets also directly improve the well-being of consumers by allowing them to time their purchases better. They provide funds to young people to buy what they need and can eventually afford without forcing them to wait until they have saved up the entire purchase price. Financial markets that are operating efficiently improve the economic welfare of everyone in the society.

6 Structure of Financial Markets
Debt and Equity Markets Debt instruments (maturity) Equities (dividends) Primary and Secondary Markets Investment Banks underwrite securities in primary markets Brokers and dealers work in secondary markets As already said, a firm or an individual can obtain funds in a financial market in two ways. The most common method is to issue a debt instrument, such as a bond or a mortgage, which is a contractual agreement by the borrower to pay the holder of the instrument fixed amounts at regular intervals (interest and principal payments) until a specified date (the maturity date), when a final payment is made. The maturity of a debt instrument is the number of years (term) until that instrument’s expiration date. A debt instrument is short-term if its maturity is less than a year and long-term if its maturity is ten years or longer. Debt instruments with a maturity between one and ten years are said to be intermediate-term. The second method of raising funds is by issuing equities, such as common stock, which are claims to share in the net income (income after expenses and taxes) and the assets of a business. If you own one share of common stock in a company that has issued one million shares, you are entitled to 1 one-millionth of the firm’s net income and 1 one-millionth of the firm’s assets. Equities often make periodic payments (dividends) to their holders and are considered long-term securities because they have no maturity date. In addition, owning stock means that you own a portion of the firm and thus have the right to vote on issues important to the firm and to elect its directors.A firm or an individual can obtain funds in a financial market in two ways. The most common method is to issue a debt instrument, such as a bond or a mortgage, which is a contractual agreement by the borrower to pay the holder of the instrument fixed dollar amounts at regular intervals (interest and principal payments) until a specified date (the maturity date), when a final payment is made. The maturity of a debt instrument is the number of years (term) until that instrument’s expiration date. A debt instrument is short-term if its maturity is less than a year and long-term if its maturity is ten years or longer. Debt instruments with a maturity between one and ten years are said to be intermediate-term. The second method of raising funds is by issuing equities, such as common stock, which are claims to share in the net income (income after expenses and taxes) and the assets of a business. If you own one share of common stock in a company that has issued one million shares, you are entitled to 1 one-millionth of the firm’s net income and 1 one-millionth of the firm’s assets. Equities often make periodic payments (dividends) to their holders and are considered long-term securities because they have no maturity date. In addition, owning stock means that you own a portion of the firm and thus have the right to vote on issues important to the firm and to elect its directors. The main disadvantage of owning a corporation’s equities rather than its debt is that an equity holder is a residual claimant; that is, the corporation must pay all its debt holders before it pays its equity holders. The advantage of holding equities is that equity holders benefit directly from any increases in the corporation’s profitability or asset value because equities confer ownership rights on the equity holders. Debt holders do not share in this benefit, because their payments are fixed. We will examine the pros and cons of debt versus equity instruments in more detail later in the course. A primary market is a financial market in which new issues of a security, such as a bond or a stock, are sold to initial buyers by the corporation or government agency borrowing the funds. A secondary market is a financial market in which securities that have been previously issued (and are thus secondhand) can be resold. The primary markets for securities are not well known to the public because the selling of securities to initial buyers often takes place behind closed doors. An important financial institution that assists in the initial sale of securities in the primary market is the investment bank. It does this by underwriting securities: It guarantees a price for a corporation’s securities and then sells them to the public. When an individual buys a security in the secondary market, the person who has sold the security receives money in exchange for the security, but the corporation that issued the security acquires no new funds. A corporation acquires new funds only when its securities are first sold in the primary market. Nonetheless, secondary markets serve two important functions. First, they make it easier and quicker to sell these financial instruments to raise cash; that is, they make the financial instruments more liquid. The increased liquidity of these instruments then makes them more desirable and thus easier for the issuing firm to sell in the primary market. Second, they determine the price of the security that the issuing firm sells in the primary market. The investors that buy securities in the primary market will pay the issuing corporation no more than the price they think the secondary market will set for this security. The higher the security’s price in the secondary market, the higher will be the price that the issuing firm will receive for a new security in the primary market, and hence the greater the amount of financial capital it can raise. Conditions in the secondary market are therefore the most relevant to corporations issuing securities. It is for this reason that books like this one, that deal with financial markets, focus on the behavior of secondary markets rather than primary markets.

7 Structure of Financial Markets (cont’d)
Exchanges and Over-the-Counter (OTC) Markets Exchanges: NYSE, Sofia Stock exchange, etc. OTC Markets: Foreign exchange, Federal funds Money and Capital Markets Money markets deal in short-term debt instruments Capital markets deal in longer-term debt and equity instruments Secondary markets can be organized in two ways. One is to organize exchanges, where buyers and sellers of securities (or their agents or brokers) meet in one central location to conduct trades. The other method of organizing a secondary market is to have an over-the counter (OTC) market, in which dealers at different locations who have an inventory of securities stand ready to buy and sell securities “over the counter” to anyone who comes to them and is willing to accept their prices. Because over-the-counter dealers are in computer contact and know the prices set by one another, the OTC market is very competitive and not very different from a market with an organized exchange. Many common stocks are traded over-the-counter, although a majority of the largest corporations have their shares traded at organized stock exchanges. Other over-the-counter markets include those that trade other types of financial instruments such as negotiable certificates of deposit, federal funds, banker’s acceptances, and foreign exchange. Another way of distinguishing between markets is on the basis of the maturity of the securities traded in each market. The money market is a financial market in which only short-term debt instruments (generally those with original maturity of less than one year) are traded; the capital market is the market in which longer-term debt (generally those with original maturity of one year or greater) and equity instruments are traded. Money market securities are usually more widely traded than longer-term securities and so tend to be more liquid. In addition, short-term securities have smaller fluctuations in prices than long-term securities, making them safer investments. As a result, corporations and banks actively use the money market to earn interest on surplus funds that they expect to have only temporarily. Capital market securities, such as stocks and long-term bonds, are often held by financial intermediaries such as insurance companies and pension funds, which have little uncertainty about the amount of funds they will have available in the future.

8 Internationalization of Financial Markets
Foreign Bonds: sold in a foreign country and denominated in that country’s currency Eurobond: bond denominated in a currency other than that of the country in which it is sold Eurocurrencies: foreign currencies deposited in banks outside the home country Eurodollars: U.S. dollars deposited in foreign banks outside the U.S. or in foreign branches of U.S. banks World Stock Markets Also help finance the federal government The traditional instruments in the international bond market are known as foreign bonds. Foreign bonds are sold in a foreign country and are denominated in that country’s currency. For example, if the German automaker Porsche sells a bond in the United States denominated in U.S. dollars, it is classified as a foreign bond. Foreign bonds have been an important instrument in the international capital market for centuries. In fact, a large percentage of U.S. railroads built in the nineteenth century were financed by sales of foreign bonds in Britain. A more recent innovation in the international bond market is the Eurobond, a bond denominated in a currency other than that of the country in which it is sold—for example, a bond denominated in U.S. dollars sold in London. Currently, over 80 percent of the new issues in the international bond market are Eurobonds, and the market for these securities has grown very rapidly. As a result, the Eurobond market is now larger than the U.S. corporate bond market. A variant of the Eurobond is Eurocurrencies, which are foreign currencies deposited in banks outside the home country. The most important of the Eurocurrencies are Eurodollars, which are U.S. dollars deposited in foreign banks outside the United States or in foreign branches of U.S. banks. Because these short-term deposits earn interest, they are similar to short-term Eurobonds. American banks borrow Eurodollar deposits from other banks or from their own foreign branches, and Eurodollars are now an important source of funds for American banks. Note that the new currency, the euro, can create some confusion about the terms Eurobond, Eurocurrencies, and Eurodollars. A bond denominated in euros is called a Eurobond only if it is sold outside the countries that have adopted the euro. In fact, most Eurobonds are not denominated in euros but are instead denominated in U.S. dollars. Similarly, Eurodollars have nothing to do with euros, but are instead U.S. dollars deposited in banks outside the United States.

9 Financial Markets Instruments
Money market instruments Treasury bills Negotiable Banks Certificates of Deposits Commercial papers Repurchase agreements Now that we know the basic financial markets, lets turn to basic instruments. As you will see, financial instruments are market specific.

10 Financial Markets Instruments(cont’d)
Capital Market Instruments Stocks Mortgages Corporate bonds Government securities Local government bonds

11 Financial Intermediaries
So far we talked about financial markets and instruments. But what about the other route, the financial intermediaries?

12 Function of Financial Intermediaries: Indirect Finance
Lower transaction costs (time and money spent in carrying out financial transactions) Economies of scale Liquidity services Reduce the exposure of investors to risk Risk Sharing (Asset Transformation) Diversification Deal with asymmetric information problems Adverse Selection: try to avoid selecting the risky borrower. Gather information about potential borrower. (after the transaction) Moral Hazard: ensure borrower will not engage in activities that will prevent him/her to repay the loan. Sign a contract with restrictive covenants. As you remember, funds can move from lenders to borrowers by a second route, called indirect finance because it involves a financial intermediary that stands between the lender-savers and the borrower-spenders and helps transfer funds from one to the other. A financial intermediary does this by borrowing funds from the lender-savers and then using these funds to make loans to borrower-spenders. For example, a bank might acquire funds by issuing a liability to the public (an asset for the public) in the form of savings deposits. It might then use the funds to acquire an asset by making a loan or by buying a bond in the financial market. The ultimate result is that funds have been transferred from the lender-savers to the borrower-spender with the help of the financial intermediary (the bank). The process of indirect finance using financial intermediaries, called financial intermediation, is the primary route for moving funds from lenders to borrowers. Indeed, although the media focus much of their attention on securities markets, particularly the stock market, financial intermediaries are a far more important source of financing for corporations than securities markets are. Why are financial intermediaries and indirect finance so important in financial markets? To answer this question, we need to understand the role of transaction costs, risk sharing, and information costs in financial markets. Transaction costs - the time and money spent in carrying out financial transactions, are a major problem for people who have excess funds to lend. Usually, small savers are frozen out of financial markets and thus are unable to benefit from them. Can anyone come to the rescue? Financial intermediaries can. Financial intermediaries can substantially reduce transaction costs because they have developed expertise in lowering them; because their large size allows them to take advantage of economies of scale, the reduction in transaction costs per transactions as the size (scale) of transactions increases. Because financial intermediaries are able to reduce transaction costs substantially, they make it possible for small savers to provide funds indirectly to people with productive investment opportunities. In addition, a financial intermediary’s low transaction costs mean that it can provide its customers with liquidity services, services that make it easier for customers to conduct transactions. For example, banks provide depositors with checking accounts that enable them to pay their bills easily. In addition, depositors can earn interest on checking and savings accounts and yet still convert them into goods and services whenever necessary. Don’t turn!

13 Function of Financial Intermediaries: Indirect Finance (cont’d)
Conclusion: Financial intermediaries allow “small” savers and borrowers to benefit from the existence of financial markets. Another benefit made possible by the low transaction costs of financial institutions is that they can help reduce the exposure of investors to risk; that is, uncertainty about the returns investors will earn on assets. Financial intermediaries do this through the process known as risk sharing: they create and sell assets with risk characteristics that people are comfortable with, and the intermediaries then use the funds they acquire by selling these assets to purchase other assets that may have far more risk. Low transaction costs allow financial intermediaries to do risk sharing at low cost, enabling them to earn a profit on the spread between the returns they earn on risky assets and the payments they make on the assets they have sold. This process of risk sharing is also sometimes referred to as asset transformation, because in a sense, risky assets are turned into safer assets for investors. Financial intermediaries also promote risk sharing by helping individuals to diversify and thereby lower the amount of risk to which they are exposed. Diversification entails investing in a collection (portfolio) of assets whose returns do not always move together, with the result that overall risk is lower than for individual assets. (Diversification is just another name for the old adage that “you shouldn’t put all your eggs in one basket.”) Low transaction costs allow financial intermediaries to do this by pooling a collection of assets into a new asset and then selling it to individuals. The presence of transaction costs in financial markets explains, in part, why financial intermediaries and indirect finance play such an important role in financial markets. An additional reason is that in financial markets, one party often does not know enough about the other party to make accurate decisions. This inequality is called asymmetric information. For example, a borrower who takes out a loan usually has better information about the potential returns and risk associated with the investment projects for which the funds are earmarked than the lender does. Lack of information creates problems in the financial system on two fronts: before the transaction is entered into and after. We’ll talk about this phenomenon later on. Turn! The important point here is that financial intermediaries allow “small” savers and borrowers to benefit from the existence of financial markets.

14 Types of Financial intermediaries
Depository institutions Commercial banks Saving and loan associations and mutual saving banks Credit unions Depository institutions are financial intermediaries that accept deposits from individuals and institutions and make loans. The study of money and banking focuses special attention on this group of financial institutions, because they are involved in the creation of deposits, an important component of the money supply. Commercial banks include commercial banks and the so-called thrift institutions (thrifts): savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, and credit unions. These financial intermediaries raise funds primarily by issuing checkable deposits (deposits on which checks can be written), savings deposits (deposits that are payable on demand but do not allow their owner to write checks), and time deposits (deposits with fixed terms to maturity). They then use these funds to make commercial, consumer, and mortgage loans and to buy government, municipal or corporate securities and bonds. S&L institutions obtain funds primarily through savings deposits (often called shares) and time and checkable deposits. In the past, these institutions were constrained in their activities and mostly made mortgage loans for residential housing. Over time, these restrictions have been loosened so that the distinction between these depository institutions and commercial banks has blurred. These intermediaries have become more alike and are now more competitive with each other. Credit unions - are very small cooperative lending institutions organized around a particular group: union members, employees of a particular firm, and so forth. They acquire funds from deposits called shares and primarily make consumer loans.

15 Types of Financial intermediaries (cont’d)
Contractual Saving Institutions Life Insurance Companies Casualty Insurance Companies Pension Funds Life insurance companies insure people against financial hazards following a death and sell annuities (annual income payments upon retirement). They acquire funds from the premiums that people pay to keep their policies in force and use them mainly to buy corporate bonds and mortgages. They also purchase stocks, but are restricted in the amount that they can hold. Casualty Insurance companies insure their policyholders against loss from theft, fire, and accidents. They are very much like life insurance companies, receiving funds through premiums for their policies, but they have a greater possibility of loss of funds if major disasters occur. For this reason, they use their funds to buy more liquid assets than life insurance companies do. Their largest holding of assets is government bonds; they also hold corporate bonds and stocks but in smaller amount compared to life insurance companies. Private pension funds provide retirement income in the form of annuities to employees who are covered by a pension plan. Funds are acquired by contributions from employers or from employees, who either have a contribution automatically deducted from their paychecks or contribute voluntarily. The largest asset holdings of pension funds are corporate bonds and stocks. The establishment of pension funds has been actively encouraged by the federal government, both through legislation requiring pension plans and through tax incentives to encourage contributions.

16 Types of Financial intermediaries (cont’d)
Investment Intermediaries Finance Companies Mutual Funds Money Market Mutual Funds Investment Banks Finance companies raise funds by selling commercial paper (a short-term debt instrument) and by issuing stocks and bonds. They lend these funds to consumers, who make purchases of such items as furniture, automobiles, and home improvements, and to small businesses. Some finance companies are organized by a parent corporation to help sell its product. For example, Ford Motor Credit Company makes loans to consumers who purchase Ford automobiles. Mutual funds acquire funds by selling shares to many individuals and use the proceeds to purchase diversified portfolios of stocks and bonds. Mutual funds allow shareholders to pool their resources so that they can take advantage of lower transaction costs when buying large blocks of stocks or bonds. In addition, mutual funds allow shareholders to hold more diversified portfolios than they otherwise would. Shareholders can sell (redeem) shares at any time, but the value of these shares will be determined by the value of the mutual fund’s holdings of securities. Because these fluctuate greatly, the value of mutual fund shares will too; therefore, investments in mutual funds can be risky. Money market mutual funds are relatively new financial institutions. They have the characteristics of a mutual fund but also function to some extent as a depository institution because they offer deposit-type accounts. Like most mutual funds, they sell shares to acquire funds that are then used to buy money market instruments that are both safe and very liquid. The interest on these assets is then paid out to the shareholders. A key feature of these funds is that shareholders can write checks against the value of their shareholdings. In effect, shares in a money market mutual fund function like checking account deposits that pay interest. Money market mutual funds have experienced extraordinary growth since 1971, when they first appeared. Despite its name, investment banks are not banks or financial intermediaries in the ordinary sense; that is, they do not take in deposits and then lend then out. Instead, investment banks are a different type of intermediaries that help corporations issue securities. First, they advise corporations on which type of securities to issue (stocks or bonds); than they help sell (called underwrite) the securities by purchasing them for a predetermined price and reselling them in the market. Investment banks also act as deal makers and earn enormous fees by helping corporations acquire othe companies through mergers and acqusitions.

17 Regulation of the Financial System
To increase the information available to investors: Reduce adverse selection and moral hazard problems Reduce insider trading . To ensure the soundness of financial intermediaries: Restrictions on entry (chartering process). Disclosure of information. Restrictions on Assets and Activities (control holding of risky assets). Deposit Insurance (avoid bank runs). Limits on Competition (mostly in the past): Branching Restrictions on Interest Rates The financial system is among the most heavily regulated sectors of the economy. The government regulates financial markets for two main reasons: to increase the information available to investors and to ensure the soundness of the financial system. We will briefly examine how these two reasons have led to the present regulatory environment. Asymmetric information in financial markets means that investors may be subject to adverse selection and moral hazard problems that may hinder the efficient operation of financial markets. Risky firms or outright crooks may be the most eager to sell securities to unwary investors, and the resulting adverse selection problem may keep investors out of financial markets. Furthermore, once an investor has bought a security, thereby lending money to a firm, the borrower may have incentives to engage in risky activities or to commit outright fraud. The presence of this moral hazard problem may also keep investors away from financial markets. Government regulation can reduce adverse selection and moral hazard problems in financial markets and increase their efficiency by increasing the amount of information available to investors. Asymmetric information can also lead to widespread collapse of financial intermediaries, referred to as a financial panic. Because providers of funds to financial intermediaries may not be able to assess whether the institutions holding their funds are sound, if they have doubts about the overall health of financial intermediaries, they may want to pull their funds out of both sound and unsound institutions. The possible outcome is a financial panic that produces large losses for the public and causes serious damage to the economy. To protect the public and the economy from financial panics, the government has implemented the following types of regulations. Restrictions on Entry. State banking and insurance commissions, as well as the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (an agency of the federal government), have created very tight regulations governing who is allowed to set up a financial intermediary. Individuals or groups that want to establish a financial intermediary, such as a bank or an insurance company, must obtain a charter from the state or the federal government. Only if they are upstanding citizens with impeccable credentials and a large amount of initial funds will they be given a charter. Disclosure. There are stringent reporting requirements for financial intermediaries. Their bookkeeping must follow certain strict principles, their books are subject to periodic inspection, and they must make certain information available to the public. Restrictions on Assets and Activities. There are restrictions on what financial intermediaries are allowed to do and what assets they can hold. Before you put your funds into a bank or some other such institution, you would want to know that your funds are safe and that the bank or other financial intermediary will be able to meet its obligations to you. One way of doing this is to restrict the financial intermediary from engaging in certain risky activities. Legislation passed in 1933 (repealed in 1999) separated commercial banking from the securities industry so that banks could not engage in risky ventures associated with this industry. Another way is to restrict financial intermediaries from holding certain risky assets, or at least from holding a greater quantity of these risky assets than is prudent. For example, commercial banks and other depository institutions are not allowed to hold common stock because stock prices experience substantial fluctuations. Insurance companies are allowed to hold common stock, but their holdings cannot exceed a certain fraction of their total assets. Deposit Insurance. The government can insure people’s deposits so that they do not suffer any financial loss if the financial intermediary that holds these deposits should fail. In Bulgaria the agency that provides this type of insurance is the Deposit Insurance Fund, which insures each depositor at a commercial bank up to a loss of BGN196,000 per account. All commercial banks, with a few minor exceptions, are contributors to the DIF, which is used to pay off depositors in the case of a bank’s failure. Limits on Competition. Politicians have often declared that unrestrained competition among financial intermediaries promotes failures that will harm the public. Although the evidence that competition does this is extremely weak, it has not stopped governments all over the world from imposing many restrictive regulations. First are the restrictions on the opening of additional locations (branches). In the past, banks were not allowed to open up branches in other states, and in some states, banks were restricted from opening additional locations. Restrictions on Interest Rates. Competition has also been inhibited by regulations that impose restrictions on interest rates that can be paid on deposits. For example, in the US, for decades after 1933, banks were prohibited from paying interest on checking accounts. In addition, until 1986, the Federal Reserve System had the power to set maximum interest rates that banks could pay on savings deposits. These regulations were instituted because of the widespread belief that unrestricted interest-rate competition helped encourage bank failures during the Great Depression. Later evidence does not seem to support this view, and such kind of restrictions have been abolished.

18 Economic Analysis of Financial Structure

19 Basic Facts about Financial Structure Throughout the World
How does the financial structure promote economic efficiency? The bar chart in next slide shows how American businesses financed their activities using external funds (those obtained from outside the business itself) in the period 1970–2000 and compares U.S. data to those of Germany, Japan, and Canada

20 Sources of External Funds for Nonfinancial Businesses: A Comparison of the United States with Germany, Japan, and Canada

21 Eight Basic Facts Stocks are not the most important sources of external financing for businesses Issuing marketable debt and equity securities is not the primary way in which businesses finance their operations Indirect finance is many times more important than direct finance Financial intermediaries, particularly banks, are the most important source of external funds used to finance businesses.

22 Eight Basic Facts (cont’d)
The financial system is among the most heavily regulated sectors of the economy Only large, well-established corporations have easy access to securities markets to finance their activities Collateral is a prevalent feature of debt contracts for both households and businesses. Debt contracts are extremely complicated legal documents that place substantial restrictive covenants on borrowers

23 Asymmetric Information: Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard
Adverse selection occurs before the transaction Moral hazard arises after the transaction Agency theory analyses how asymmetric information problems affect economic behavior

24 The Lemons Problem: How Adverse Selection Influences Financial Structure
If quality cannot be assessed, the buyer is willing to pay at most a price that reflects the average quality Sellers of good quality items will not want to sell at the price for average quality The buyer will decide not to buy at all because all that is left in the market is poor quality items This problem explains fact 2 and partially explains fact 1

25 Tools to Help Solve Adverse Selection Problems
Private production and sale of information Free-rider problem Government regulation to increase information Not always works to solve the adverse selection problem, explains Fact 5. Financial intermediation Explains facts 3, 4, & 6. Collateral and net worth Explains fact 7.

26 How Moral Hazard Affects the Choice Between Debt and Equity Contracts
Called the Principal-Agent Problem Principal: less information (stockholder) Agent: more information (manager) Separation of ownership and control of the firm Managers pursue personal benefits and power rather than the profitability of the fir

27 Tools to Help Solve the Principal-Agent Problem
Monitoring (Costly State Verification) Free-rider problem Fact 1 Government regulation to increase information Fact 5 Financial Intermediation Fact 3 Debt Contracts

28 How Moral Hazard Influences Financial Structure in Debt Markets
Borrowers have incentives to take on projects that are riskier than the lenders would like. This prevents the borrower from paying back the loan.

29 Tools to Help Solve Moral Hazard in Debt Contracts
Net worth and collateral Incentive compatible Monitoring and Enforcement of Restrictive Covenants Discourage undesirable behavior Encourage desirable behavior Keep collateral valuable Provide information Financial Intermediation Facts 3 & 4

30 Asymmetric Information Problems and Tools to Solve Them

31 Asymmetric Information in Transition and Developing Countries
“Financial repression” (when governments channel funds to themselves as a form of debt reduction) created by an institutional environment characterized by: Poor system of property rights (unable to use collateral efficiently) Poor legal system (difficult for lenders to enforce restrictive covenants) Weak accounting standards (less access to good information) Government intervention through directed credit programs and state owned banks (less incentive to proper channel funds to its most productive use).

32 Financial Development and Economic Growth
The financial systems in developing and transition countries face several difficulties that keep them from operating efficiently In many developing countries, the system of property rights (the rule of law, constraints on government expropriation, absence of corruption) functions poorly, making it hard to use these two tools effectively

33 Economic Analysis of Financial Regulation

34 Asymmetric Information and Financial Regulation
Bank panics and the need for deposit insurance: FDIC: short circuits bank failures and contagion effect. Payoff method. Purchase and assumption method (typically more costly for the FDIC). Other form of government safety net: Lending from the central bank to troubled institutions (lender of last resort).

35 Government Safety Net Moral Hazard Adverse Selection
Depositors do not impose discipline of marketplace. Financial institutions have an incentive to take on greater risk. Adverse Selection Risk-lovers find banking attractive. Depositors have little reason to monitor financial institutions.

36 Government Safety Net: “Too Big to Fail”
Government provides guarantees of repayment to large uninsured creditors of the largest financial institutions even when they are not entitled to this guarantee Uses the purchase and assumption method Increases moral hazard incentives for big banks

37 Government Safety Net: Financial Consolidation
Larger and more complex financial organizations challenge regulation Increased “too big to fail” problem Extends safety net to new activities, increasing incentives for risk taking in these areas (as has occurred during the global financial crisis)

38 Restrictions on Asset Holdings
Attempts to restrict financial institutions from too much risk taking Bank regulations Promote diversification Prohibit holdings of common stock Capital requirements Minimum leverage ratio (for banks) Basel Accord: risk-based capital requirements Regulatory arbitrage

39 Capital Requirements Government-imposed capital requirements are another way of minimizing moral hazard at financial institutions There are two forms: The first type is based on the leverage ratio, the amount of capital divided by the bank’s total assets. To be classified as well capitalized, a bank’s leverage ratio must exceed 5%; a lower leverage ratio, especially one below 3%, triggers increased regulatory restrictions on the bank The second type is risk-based capital requirements

40 Financial Supervision: Chartering and Examination
Chartering (screening of proposals to open new financial institutions) to prevent adverse selection Examinations (scheduled and unscheduled) to monitor capital requirements and restrictions on asset holding to prevent moral hazard Capital adequacy Asset quality Management Earnings Liquidity Sensitivity to market risk Filing periodic ‘call reports’

41 Assessment of Risk Management
Greater emphasis on evaluating soundness of management processes for controlling risk Trading Activities Manual of 1994 for risk management rating based on Quality of oversight provided Adequacy of policies and limits for all risky activities Quality of the risk measurement and monitoring systems Adequacy of internal controls Interest-rate risk limits Internal policies and procedures Internal management and monitoring Implementation of stress testing and Value-at risk (VAR)

42 Disclosure Requirements
Requirements to adhere to standard accounting principles and to disclose wide range of information The Basel 2 accord puts a particular emphasis on disclosure requirements Mark-to-market (fair-value) accounting

43 Macroprudential Vs. Microprudential Supervision
Before the global financial crisis, the regulatory authorities engaged in microprudential supervision, which is focused on the safety and soundness of individual financial institutions. The global financial crisis has made it clear that there is a need for macroprudential supervision, which focuses on the safety and soundness of the financial system in the aggregate.

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