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CQI 101: Building and Sustaining an Effective Infrastructure

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1 CQI 101: Building and Sustaining an Effective Infrastructure
Kimberly Gentry Sperber, Ph.D.

2 Achieving Quality Responsibility for quality falls on both the organization and the individual. The individual and the organization should be linked in a formal framework designed to continually improve quality.

3 Quality Assurance (QA)
Retrospective review process Emphasis on regulatory and contract compliance Catching people being bad leads to hide and seek behavior

4 Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)
CQI is a prospective process Holds quality as a central priority within the organization Focus on customer needs; relies on feedback from internal and external customers Emphasizes systematic use of data Not blame-seeking Trust, respect, and communication Move toward staff responsibility for quality, problem solving and ownership of services

5 Objectives of CQI To facilitate the Agency’s mission
To ensure appropriateness of services To improve efficiency of services/processes To improve effectiveness of directing services to client needs To foster a culture of learning To ensure compliance with funding and regulatory standards

6 Creating Infrastructure
Dedicated position Use of committees Written CQI plan Designated process requirements Inclusion in strategic plan Positioning within agency Role of external stakeholders Will discuss Talbert House infrastructure as an example only; infrastructure should be tailored to each agency’s vision, needs, and resources.

7 Creating a CQI Infrastructure
This is Talbert House structure; does not imply that every organization should look like this.

8 Written Plan Vision/purpose Definitions Authority to ensure compliance
Objectives Definitions Authority to ensure compliance Compliance procedures/definitions Documentation of process Peer Review Committees Membership Satisfaction Clients Employees External stakeholders Choosing indicators Use of data Highlights from Talbert House CQI Plan

9 Why Examine Documentation?
Clinical Implications Documentation is not separate from service delivery. Did the client receive the services he/she needed? Operational Implications Good documentation should drive decision-making. Means of communication Risk Management Implications If it isn’t documented, it didn’t happen. Permanent record of what occurred in the facility Source of Staff Training Reflection of the provider and organization’s competency: EBP Outcome of care

10 Peer Review Committees
Requires standardized, objective method for assessing charts. Random selection of charts and monthly reviews Goal is to identify trends and brainstorm solutions These staff serve as front line for corporate compliance, risk management, and quality documentation

11 Peer Review Measures Completeness of Records checks Quality Issues
Assessment is present and complete. Service plan present and complete. Consent for Treatment present and signed. Quality Issues Services based on assessed needs. Progress notes reflect implementation of service plan. Documentation shows client actively participated in creation of service plan. Progress notes reflect client progress.

12 Peer Review Process Identification of review elements
Assigning staff responsibilities Workload analysis Creating process for selecting files for review Determining review rotation Reporting and use of data

13 Establishing Indicators
Relevant to the services offered Align with existing research Measurable No “homegrown” instruments Reliable and valid standardized measures

14 Examples of Indicators
Process Indicators Percentage of clients with a serious MH issue referred to community services within 14 days of intake. Percentage of clients with family involved in treatment (defined as min. number of face-to-face contacts). Percentage of clients whose first billable service is within 72 hours (case mgt). Percentage of positive case closures for probation/parole. Percentage of high risk clients on Abscond Status for probation/parole. Percentage of restitution/fines collected. Percentage of clients participating in treatment services.

15 Examples of Indicators
Outcome Indicators Clients will demonstrate a reduction in antisocial attitudes. Clients will demonstrate a reduction in LSI scores. Clients will demonstrate an increase in treatment readiness. Clients will obtain a GED. Clients will obtain full-time employment. Clients will demonstrate a reduction in Symptom Distress. Client will demonstrate sobriety.

16 Client Satisfaction Identify the dimensions
Access Involvement in treatment/case planning Emergency response Respect from staff Respect from staff for cultural background All programs use the same survey Items are scored on a 1-4 Likert scale Falling below a 3.0 generates an action plan

17 Operationalizing the Process
Distribution and collection of surveys Coding, analysis, and reporting of data Use of data

18 Establishing Thresholds
Establish internal baselines Compare to similar programs Compare to state or national data

19 Action Plans Plan of correction Proactive approach to problem-solving
Empowers staff Using objective data to inform decision making

20 Who Creates Action Plans?
Anyone and everyone can create action plans Focus should be on who has knowledge or expertise to contribute Focus should not be on the person’s title

21 Focus on Causes not Symptoms
Focus on processes/systems rather than individuals or specific errors Identification of risk points and their contribution to the problem Identify changes in these processes that reduce risk of re-occurrence

22 Process Evaluation Are we serving our target population?
Are the services being delivered? Did we implement the program as designed (tx fidelity)? Are there areas that need improvement?

23 Outcome Evaluation Are our services effective?
Do clients benefit (change) from the services? Intermediate outcomes Reduction in risk Reduction in antisocial values Long-term outcomes Recidivism Sobriety

24 Minimum Requirements Buy-in from staff at all levels of the organization Sufficient resources allocated for staff training Sufficient resources allocated for staff to participate in the process Peer Review Meetings Other relevant committee meetings Data collection Sufficient information systems

25 Barriers to Implementation
Agency culture The “black hole” of data that leads to staff cynicism and burnout Conflicting messages about targets/goals in various work domains Problem letting go of old ways “We’re clinicians not statisticians” Costs Staff time IS capabilities Data collection instruments Coordination of the process and dissemination of the data Multiple and sometimes conflicting demands of multiple funders Different priorities Don’t speak the same language causing confusion for line staff

26 Overcoming Resistance
Administration must walk the walk Insure early successes to increase buy-in Recognition of staff for using the process Openly acknowledge the extra work required Demonstrate front-end planning to minimize workload issues

27 Benefits of Program Evaluation
Proof of effective services Maintain or secure funding Improve staff morale and retention Educate key stakeholders about services Highlights opportunities for improvement Data to inform quality improvement initiatives Establish/enhance best practices Monitor/ensure treatment fidelity

28 Why Invest in CQI? A CEO’s Perspective:
Because it’s the right thing to do! Better for clients (i.e., better outcomes) Mission-driven Increased staff satisfaction Increased staff retention Improved referral source satisfaction More business for related projects Outcomes to sell to business community and other payers Demonstrates fiscal responsibility (i.e., effective use of dollars)

29 Strategic Use of CQI Data
CQI data used to provide testimony before legislature CQI data and infrastructure used to secure new contracts and grants CQI data used in newsletters, media relations, levy campaigns, etc. CQI data used to negotiate programmatic changes with stakeholders

30 The Role of QA/QI in Community Corrections (based on UC Halfway House and CBCF study)

31 NPC Research on Drug Courts
Significant at p<.05

32 Identifying Key Decision Points
Getting Started Identifying Key Decision Points

33 Looking at Infrastructure
Identification of those with powers for decision making and resource allocation Current capabilities Ideas for infrastructure Planned needs

34 Documentation Review Feasibility of documentation review
Identify sources of review elements Operationalize routine file reviews Who When How many

35 Choosing Indicators Identify possible measures Value of measures
Methods of measurement Operationalize data collection

36 Creating a Client Satisfaction Process
Identify sample survey items Prioritize items Operationalize distribution and reporting Identify staff responsibilities Mechanisms for sharing results

37 Program Evaluation Examples of past projects
Were they beneficial? Ideas for new process and outcome evaluation projects Available data Required resources

38 Creating a Work Plan Identify all questions that need answered and who has the authority to answer them Identify beginning tasks Assign responsible parties and deadlines Create written implementation plan

39 Questions and Answers Contact Information:

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