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The Age of Chivalry Chapter 13 section 3 Page 327.

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1 The Age of Chivalry Chapter 13 section 3 Page 327

2 Do You Remember? Which invaders came from the north? Vikings
Why were the Muslims out for revenge? They failed at conquering Europe in the 600 and 700s Who was at the top of the feudal pyramid? The king What was the difference between serfs and peasants? Serfs couldn’t leave the manor because they were born there How much did each family pay in church tax? 10% of income

3 Fighting Feudal Lords During the Middle Ages, nobles were always fighting each other Feudal lords: * defended estates * seized new territories * increased their wealth

4 Warriors on Horseback Lords and armies lived in a violent society
Combat skills were awarded and appreciated By 1100 a code of behavior arose

5 Charles Martel observed how Muslim cavalry won battles
He organized Frankish troops of armored horseman, or knights Leather saddle and stirrups changed the technology of warfare in Europe during 700s

6 The saddle kept a warrior firmly seated on his horse

7 Stirrups allowed the soldier to stand up while riding and maneuver heavier weapons
Without stirrups to hold him, the soldier would fall off his horse

8 Frankish knights could knock over enemy foot soldiers and riders on horseback
Mounted knights became the most important part of the army The horses they owned became status symbols Warhorses played a key military role

9 Knighted Armor A knights armor had to fit the knight perfectly
The parts of a Knights Suit of Armor were a complex series of garments, chain mail and iron plate

10 Lords and Knights Feudal lords raised private armies to defend their territories In exchange for military service, they would reward knights with fiefs from large estates Wealth from fiefs could afford knights to pay for weapons and warhorses As a lords vassal, the knight was obligated to fight in battle, typically 40 days a year

11 Knights were expected to display courage in battle and loyalty to his lord
By the 1100s a code of chivalry develops Chivalry code was a complex set of ideals


13 Code of Chivalry Code demanded that that a knight fight in bravery in defense of his 3 masters: * His earthly lord * His heavenly Lord * His chosen lady

14 Ideal knight The ideal knight was loyal, brave and courteous
The knights were also supposed to protect the weak and the poor Many knights failed to meet such high standards

15 A Disgrace A cowardly knight who disgraced the code of chivalry faced public shame: First his armor was stripped off, then his shield was cracked, next his spurs were cut off and his sword was broken over his head. People then threw the knight into a coffin and dragged him to church where a priest would chant a mock funeral service

16 Education of a knight Page- at age 7, a young noble was sent to the castle of another lord where he waited on hosts and learned courtly manners Squire- at 14, he was raised ranks to a squire, who was a servant to the knight- took care of armor, weapons, horse Knight- at age 21 became a knight

17 Squire Page Knight

18 Tournaments
To train, some knights would fight in mock battles called tournaments They were fierce, bloody competitions Winners could demand high ransoms from the losing knights Trumpets blared and people cheered as they watched the competition

19 The Castle Stone castles were protected by massive walls and guard towers Castle was home to the lord, wife, family, knights and servants Anywhere from several hundred or several THOUSAND could live in the castle depending on its size!






25 Defending the Castle The castle was also designed for defense
Attacking armies used different strategies to try and force castle residents to surrender Defenders of a castle would pour boiling water, hot oil, or molten lead on enemy soldiers Expert archers on castle roofs would fire deadly bolts that could pierce full armor

26 Trebuchet Enemy soldiers would launch diseased bodies, animals, severed heads, burning liquids over castle walls



29 Sometimes, entering through the “toilet” was an option

30 Literature of Chivalry
Medieval literature downplayed the brutality of knight life and warfare Many stories glorified knighthood and chivalry, even bloody battles and tournaments

31 Epic Poems Feudal lords and their ladies enjoyed listening to epic poems These poems recounted a hero’s good deeds and adventures Some epics were about legendary heroes like Charlemagne and King Arthur The Song of Roland, a poem praising French soldiers fighting with Charlemagne, is one of the earliest and most famous epic poems

32 Under the code of chivalry, a knights duty to his lady was as important as duty to his lord
Some poems and songs were about the struggle of balancing the two Troubadours were poet musicians who composed short verses and songs about joys and sorrows of love

33 Women The Church viewed women as inferior to men
Idea of Romantic love put women on a pedestal A true knight pledged loyalty to all women

34 Women’s status actually declined as feudalism developed
Roles became limited to the home performing endless labor, bearing children and taking care of their families Most women were poor and powerless

35 Women in Power Noblewomen had more power
She could inherit an estate from her husband and send knights to war If her husband was off fighting, the lady of the castle might act as a commander, or even a warrior while defending her castle Women weren’t able to receive land for military service Lords passed down fiefs to their sons, but not their daughters

36 A noblewoman would hurl rocks, fire arrows, mount warhorses, even dress in armor while defending her castle

37 As Middle Ages progress, even noblewomen would have less power than they had years earlier
Eleanor of Aquitaine was an exception She was Queen of England and ruled at times for her husband Henry II and her son, Richard the Lionhearted

38 The Church’s Role The Church played a role in the declining status of women The Church tried to regain control of religious organizations like convents and monasteries that noblewomen had founded or supported The influence of the Church would expand resulting in conflicts

39 Assignment List 5 “MODERN” ways to take down a castle Illustrate them

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