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Air Pollution in Hong Kong Guidelines 1. Evidence of air pollution in HK 2. Causes of air pollution in HK 3. Solutions to the problems.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Pollution in Hong Kong Guidelines 1. Evidence of air pollution in HK 2. Causes of air pollution in HK 3. Solutions to the problems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Pollution in Hong Kong Guidelines 1. Evidence of air pollution in HK 2. Causes of air pollution in HK 3. Solutions to the problems

2 TypeCausesHealth risk Sulphur dioxide -Coal burning power plant & heavy industry -Reduce lung function Nitrogen Dioxide -Power plant -Vehicle emissions -Exacerbate asthma -Increase respiratory infections -Forming smog Respirable suspended particulate -Coal burning power plant -Diesel exhaust -Penetrate deep into lungs -Aggravate serious respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Ozone -Reaction in sunlight of volatile organic compounds (primarily come from cars) -Exacerbate asthma -Chest pain -Coughing

3 Negative impacts of air pollution Long-term exposure to putrid & poisonous air esp. for factory workers Irritate underlying respiratory conditions Increase risk of pulmonary & heart disease Reduce life-span Evidence: According to the World Health Organization, 2/3 of the 800,000 premature deaths is caused by air pollution (globally occur in Asia)

4 Negative impacts of air pollution Environmental cost Deterioration of living environment In April,2006, human-resources consultancy ECA International dropped HK 12 spots to No.32 on its annual list of the most livable cities for Asian expatriate,chiefly on the basis of air pollution. (Singapore was No. 1.)

5 Negative impacts of air pollution Social cost Respiratory illnesses →Medical cost ↑ →Productivity of labour↓ Evidence: According to brokerage firm CLSA, the city's business community esp. HK,loses more than $90 million a year in medical costs and lost of productivity due to air pollution

6 Descriptions on the situation in HK Low visibility Declining visibility (below 8 km) 16% in 2004 i.e. almost 60 days in 2004 saw HK shrouded in fog Skyscrapers could be glimpsed only through a veil of noxious smog Effects: On 19 August 2004, 8 ships had minor collisions in smoggy Victoria Harbor due to low visibility Affect the aesthetic value of city’s landmarks

7 Reasons for air pollution in HK Power plants -China Light and Power (CLP) & Hong Kong Electric Company (HEC) produce -90% of the local levels of SO 2, -60% of the local levels of NO X -45% of local RSP emissions and -less than 1% VOCs Vehicles 530,000 licensed vehicles in Hong Kong with total road length 1,900 km ---> the road traffic density one of the highest in the world (275 vehicles per kilometre of road) About ¼ vehicles use diesel fuel --> 98% of the RSP --> 75% of the NOx from vehicular sources.

8 Reasons for air pollution in HK Canyon effect Narrow streets & tall buildings Traps pollutants along road Increase health risk Traffic density Highest in the world Roadside pollution has remained severe

9 Reasons for air pollution in HK Chemicals VOCs – a major precursor to the formation of photochemical smog. -activities in the PRD -vehicles -painting,printing inks -consumer products Industrial factor 90% of manufacturing plants in HK use… Backup-electricity generator (more polluting) Instead of grid power

10 Reasons for air pollution in HK Regional pollution in PRD Relocation of industries in the 80s + economic growth of PRD (at 8-9% per annum) Increasing demand for energy Change in consumer behavior Physical setting of PRD –Sheltered by hilly and mountainous ranges –  pollution in the region is localized –Urban Land Sea Breeze Circulation

11 Reasons for air pollution in HK Urban Land Sea Breeze Circulation Formation : Temperature rises due to energy use Leave an area of low pressure Air rises about 1-2 kilometres Spread out horizontally

12 Reasons for air pollution in HK Reasons that affected HK Mix with pollutants from different emission sources around the PRD Wind current do not change much -> increase air pollution level due to increase in urban and industrial development around the PRD

13 EmissionVOCsRPSNOxSO2 Approximate tonnes (1997) 470,000270,000560,000570,000 Energy1%15%42%54% Industry11%60%13%39% Motor vehicles55%14%31%4% VOC containing products 23%0% Total90%89%86%97% Different pollutant emission in PRD

14 Urban Land Sea Breeze Circulation


16 Worsening air pollution Source of pollutants: China Light & Power burns coal & reluctant to use more expensive natural gas esp. in 2003-2004 (Tsing Yi,Lung Kwu Tan) 80% city pollution comes from across the border by local winds Air monitoring station recorded a "very high" reading 2003  53 days 2004  80 days Suspended particulates in the air is up to twice the safety standard in the U.S. Air Pollution index hit a high of 149 HK days with serious air pollution↑ 50.94% in a year

17 In Guangzhou, fine-particulate levels are up to five times U.S. safety limits From 1997-2010: Economy: increased by 150% Population: increased by 20% Electricity demand: increased by 130% Vehicle mileage: increased by 180%  Heavier air pollution Worsening air pollution PRD

18 Solutions : Sustainable Development Anti-air pollution work done by the Government since 1999 i) Diesel taxis → LPG taxis (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) ii) Provided financial aid for light buses → LPG or electric vehicles iii) Introduced ULSD (ultra low sulphur diesel)

19 Anti-air pollution work done by the Government since 1999 iv)Upgraded the motor petrol standard to Euro IV v) Fines for smoky vehicles increase to $1,000 vi) Required power plants to maximize the use of natural gas

20 Anti-air pollution work done by the Government since 1999 vii) Install vapour recovery systems at petrol stations *vapour recovery : recover the vapours of gasoline or other fuels so that they do not escape into the atmosphere Gas nozzle with vapour recovery

21 Sustainable Development Achieving the 2010 emission reduction targets by: Require power companies to ↓ emissions, ↑use of natural gas in electricity generation Control VOC emissions from selected products (VOC = volatile organic compounds)

22 Achieving the 2010 emission reduction targets by: Working with Guangdong Environmental Protection Bureau (GDEPB) on an emissions trading pilot scheme covering power plants in Hong Kong and PRD restrict vehicle use on high-pollution days impose energy tax during periods of peak power use

23 Co-operation between HK & PRD Government Help manufacturers to source cleaner fuels Fast-track low-polluting liquid natural gas for power producers Improve the city's inefficient energy use by turning down subarctic office air conditioning

24 Pressures to urge the PRC government to improve air quality The 2008 Beijing Olympics: The capital has spend $ 8.1 billion on environmental-protection projects from 1998 to 2003. Switch highly polluting diesel buses to cleaner compressed natural gas (CNG) Promised stricter emissions standards on cars by 2007

25 Heavy reliance on coal Coal is cheap and abundant, it supplies 70-80% of the country's energy coal use is still expected to nearly double by 2030 Large scale of power demand Industrial combustion domestic consumption in boomtown like Shenzhen : car boom No.of automobile per household↑31% from 2003 to 2004 China's Ministry of Communications estimates the no. of vehicles on the road 2004 → 20 million 2020 →140 million energy shortage in 2003 coal mines and power plants that had been closed for environmental reasons were quickly reopened and sulfur- dioxide emissions soared Difficulties to dampen air pollution by reducing energy consumption in China total no. of vehicles ↑ 600% within 16 years

26 Other difficulties People do not realise that they themselves are polluters. Since there are many sources of air pollution, they tend to point the finger at others No one is willing to pay the price to improve air quality

27 Failure of anti-pollution measures Bureaucratic barriers Central government's best intentions are often not implemented on a local level Lack of financial support Central government provides just 10% of their budget Low Penalties Polluting factories keep paying fines rather than installing expensive cleaning equipment Evidence: Just 5-6% China’s factories employ desulphurization technique no incentive or disincentive to change behavior

28 Conclusion A globalized problem Government ought to cooperate and work together Strike a balance between economic development and environmental protection More education should be provided to arouse general awareness of the problem

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