Presentation on theme: "Child Development Part 4: Influences, Risks, Resilience, and Resources"— Presentation transcript:
1 Child Development 3-12 Part 4: Influences, Risks, Resilience, and Resources Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 26, :00-11:00 a.m.Debbie Richardson, Ph.D., Parenting Assistant Extension SpecialistHuman Development & Family Science - Oklahoma State University
2 IntroductionWelcomeOverview of In-serviceResource Materials
3 In-Service Objectives Extension Educators will be able to:Describe risk and protective factors, developmental concerns, and other issues pertinent to children between the ages of 3 to 12 years, andUnderstand when to be concerned regarding risks or delays to child development, and resource and referral sources.
4 Dr. Michael Criss – Assistant Professor Individual Risk and Resilience during ChildhoodDr. Michael Criss – Assistant ProfessorDepartment of HDFSOklahoma State University
5 Mike Criss, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, HDFS Research areas:ParentingChildren’s relationships with parents, siblings, and peersDevelopmental change in parenting and children’s interpersonal relationshipsAntecedents of antisocial behaviorChild resilienceTeaches:Lifespan Human DevelopmentAdolescent Development in Family ContextsDevelopmental Contexts of Normative Behavior ProblemsAdvanced Research Methods in HDFS
6 What are Risk Factors?Risk factor: a variable that increases the probability that an individual will have negative outcomes.What do I mean by “increases the probability”?Types of “negative child outcomes”:aggression/delinquencydepression/anxietyalcohol/drug userisky sexual behaviorpoor emotion regulationpoor social skills and peer relationships
7 What are Risk Factors? Types of risk factors: biological/genetic factorsparent and child personality/temperamentparental psychopathologynegative parentingnegative family relationshipsneighborhood factorsdemographic variablesNote: Risk factors are often correlated with each other.
8 What are Protective Factors? Protective factor: a variable which serves as a buffer or decreases the influence of a risk factor on individual outcomes.Resilience: when an individual has positive outcomes despite the presence of a risk factor or risk factors.Types of protective factors:child characteristicspositive parentingpositive family relationshipspositive peer relationshipsschools
9 Final Remarks Risk and protective factors may differ in: males and femalesyounger and older kidsdifferent cultural and ethnic groups
10 Ecological Systems Bronfenbrenner Developmental processes do not occur in a vacuum but are influenced by factors in the immediate environment, society and culture as a whole.Individuals are significantly affected by interactions among a number of overlapping systems in which they live.Family, community, and societal factors must be optimal for children to learn and be healthy.Particularly useful in defining social issues and guiding social policy.
11 Social Context of Human Development Bronfenbrenner Layers of systemsAt the center of the model is the individual.Interactions with others and the environment are key to and shape developmentWe all experience more than one type of environment, including • the microsystem – setting which an individual lives such as a family, peer group, child care, neighborhood. etc. is the immediate environment in which a person is operating. • the mesosystem - which is two microsystems interacting, such as the connection between a child’s home and school, health agencies, church, etc.• the exosystem - external environment or networks in which an individual is not actively involved, but nonetheless affects him or her anyway. Community structures, local educational, medical, employment, communications systems that influence the microsystems. For ex: child’s parent’s workplace. Although a child may never have any role in the parent’s workplace, or, in fact, never even go there, the events which occur at the child’s place of employment do affect the child. For example, if the parent has a bad day at work, or is laid off, or promoted, or has to work overtime, all of these events impact the child.• the macrosystem - the larger cultural context, attitudes, values, political philosophies, economic patterns, and social conditions.Also Chronosystem: Time dimension. Patterns of environmental events and transitions over life course. Effects created by time or critical periods of development. Social, historical conditions.Each of these systems are characterized by roles, norms (expected behavior) and relationships. Together these systems are termed the social context of human development.Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory
12 Poverty/Low SES Greater risk for range of poor outcomes: Development and cognitionLess stimulating home environmentElevated blood lead levelsStress and emotional distressHealth care and illnessChronic poverty is not a unitary variable, but a combination of pervasive stressful conditions.
13 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) The largest study ever done to examine the health and social effects of these childhood experiences throughout the lifespan (17,421 participants)What are Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)?Growing up with…Childhood abuse and neglectDomestic violenceSubstance abuse or mental illness in the homeParental discordCrime
14 ACEs Compelling Evidence Surprisingly commonLong-term, damaging consequences - still have profound effect 50 years laterHappen even in “the best of families”Transformed from psychosocial experience into organic disease, social malfunction, and mental illnessA main determinant of the health and social well-being of the nation - determine the likelihood of the 10 most common causes of death in the U.S.
15 ACEs Childhood experiences profoundly and causally shape adult life Produce neurodevelopmental and emotional damage, and impair social and school performanceRarely occur in isolation…they come in groupsHigher # of ACEs → greater risk of behavior problemsExamples: individual with ACE score of 4, is 12 x more likely to attempt suicide than those with nonehigher ACE score, the greater the likelihood of smoking, which then may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
16 ACE Findings – Adverse Effects Alcoholism & Alcohol AbuseChronic ObstructivePulmonary DiseaseDepressionFetal DeathIllicit Drug UseIschemic Heart DiseaseHealth-related Quality of LifeLiver DiseaseRisk for Intimate Partner ViolenceMultiple Sexual PartnersSexually Transmitted DiseasesSmokingSuicide AttemptsUnintended Pregnancies
18 Developmental Disabilities Jennifer Jones, Ph.D.Human Development & Family ScienceOklahoma State University
19 Jennifer Jones, Ph.D. Visiting Assistant Professor Human Development & Family ScienceResearch areas:Self-concept of Adolescents with Intellectual and Developmental DisabilitiesParenting Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental DisabilitiesTeaches:Non-Normative DevelopmentInfant and Child Development
23 Wrap-up Wrap-Up In-service evaluation Follow-up Submit questions or comments about this session or for next session.Consider the definitions, theoretical frameworks with own upbringing, teaching, curricula, written resources, etc.In-service evaluation - weblinkPost recording of session.