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Child Development Part 4: Influences, Risks, Resilience, and Resources

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development Part 4: Influences, Risks, Resilience, and Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development 3-12 Part 4: Influences, Risks, Resilience, and Resources
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 26, :00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson, Ph.D., Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science - Oklahoma State University

2 Introduction Welcome Overview of In-service Resource Materials

3 In-Service Objectives
Extension Educators will be able to: Describe risk and protective factors, developmental concerns, and other issues pertinent to children between the ages of 3 to 12 years, and Understand when to be concerned regarding risks or delays to child development, and resource and referral sources.

4 Dr. Michael Criss – Assistant Professor
Individual Risk and Resilience during Childhood Dr. Michael Criss – Assistant Professor Department of HDFS Oklahoma State University

5 Mike Criss, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, HDFS
Research areas: Parenting Children’s relationships with parents, siblings, and peers Developmental change in parenting and children’s interpersonal relationships Antecedents of antisocial behavior Child resilience Teaches: Lifespan Human Development Adolescent Development in Family Contexts Developmental Contexts of Normative Behavior Problems Advanced Research Methods in HDFS

6 What are Risk Factors? Risk factor: a variable that increases the probability that an individual will have negative outcomes. What do I mean by “increases the probability”? Types of “negative child outcomes”: aggression/delinquency depression/anxiety alcohol/drug use risky sexual behavior poor emotion regulation poor social skills and peer relationships

7 What are Risk Factors? Types of risk factors:
biological/genetic factors parent and child personality/temperament parental psychopathology negative parenting negative family relationships neighborhood factors demographic variables Note: Risk factors are often correlated with each other.

8 What are Protective Factors?
Protective factor: a variable which serves as a buffer or decreases the influence of a risk factor on individual outcomes. Resilience: when an individual has positive outcomes despite the presence of a risk factor or risk factors. Types of protective factors: child characteristics positive parenting positive family relationships positive peer relationships schools

9 Final Remarks Risk and protective factors may differ in:
males and females younger and older kids different cultural and ethnic groups

10 Ecological Systems Bronfenbrenner
Developmental processes do not occur in a vacuum but are influenced by factors in the immediate environment, society and culture as a whole. Individuals are significantly affected by interactions among a number of overlapping systems in which they live. Family, community, and societal factors must be optimal for children to learn and be healthy. Particularly useful in defining social issues and guiding social policy.

11 Social Context of Human Development Bronfenbrenner
Layers of systems At the center of the model is the individual. Interactions with others and the environment are key to and shape development We all experience more than one type of environment, including   •  the microsystem – setting which an individual lives such as a family, peer group, child care, neighborhood. etc. is the immediate environment in which a person is operating.  •   the mesosystem - which is two microsystems interacting, such as the connection between a child’s home and school, health agencies, church, etc. •  the exosystem - external environment or networks in which an individual is not actively involved, but nonetheless affects him or her anyway. Community structures, local educational, medical, employment, communications systems that influence the microsystems. For ex: child’s parent’s workplace. Although a child may never have any role in the parent’s workplace, or, in fact, never even go there, the events which occur at the child’s place of employment do affect the child. For example, if the parent has a bad day at work, or is laid off, or promoted, or has to work overtime, all of these events impact the child. • the macrosystem - the larger cultural context, attitudes, values, political philosophies, economic patterns, and social conditions. Also Chronosystem: Time dimension. Patterns of environmental events and transitions over life course. Effects created by time or critical periods of development. Social, historical conditions. Each of these systems are characterized by roles, norms (expected behavior) and relationships. Together these systems are termed the social context of human development. Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory

12 Poverty/Low SES Greater risk for range of poor outcomes:
Development and cognition Less stimulating home environment Elevated blood lead levels Stress and emotional distress Health care and illness Chronic poverty is not a unitary variable, but a combination of pervasive stressful conditions.

13 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE)
The largest study ever done to examine the health and social effects of these childhood experiences throughout the lifespan (17,421 participants) What are Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)? Growing up with… Childhood abuse and neglect Domestic violence Substance abuse or mental illness in the home Parental discord Crime

14 ACEs Compelling Evidence
Surprisingly common Long-term, damaging consequences - still have profound effect 50 years later Happen even in “the best of families” Transformed from psychosocial experience into organic disease, social malfunction, and mental illness A main determinant of the health and social well-being of the nation - determine the likelihood of the 10 most common causes of death in the U.S.

15 ACEs Childhood experiences profoundly and causally shape adult life
Produce neurodevelopmental and emotional damage, and impair social and school performance Rarely occur in isolation…they come in groups Higher # of ACEs → greater risk of behavior problems Examples: individual with ACE score of 4, is 12 x more likely to attempt suicide than those with none higher ACE score, the greater the likelihood of smoking, which then may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

16 ACE Findings – Adverse Effects
Alcoholism & Alcohol Abuse Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Depression Fetal Death Illicit Drug Use Ischemic Heart Disease Health-related Quality of Life Liver Disease Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Multiple Sexual Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Suicide Attempts Unintended Pregnancies

17 ACE Pyramid

18 Developmental Disabilities
Jennifer Jones, Ph.D. Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University

19 Jennifer Jones, Ph.D. Visiting Assistant Professor
Human Development & Family Science Research areas: Self-concept of Adolescents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Parenting Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Teaches: Non-Normative Development Infant and Child Development

20 Children’s Mental Health

21 Referral Sources Health Dept. – Child Guidance Mental Health Centers
Youth & Family Services School counselors/psychologists Pediatricians Children’s Hospitals OASIS

22 Discussion & Applications

23 Wrap-up Wrap-Up In-service evaluation Follow-up
Submit questions or comments about this session or for next session. Consider the definitions, theoretical frameworks with own upbringing, teaching, curricula, written resources, etc. In-service evaluation - weblink Post recording of session.

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