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Electric Vehicles Personal Transportation of the Future Future Public Transportation: hybrid bio-fueled buses & planes & electric trains L. David Roper.

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Presentation on theme: "Electric Vehicles Personal Transportation of the Future Future Public Transportation: hybrid bio-fueled buses & planes & electric trains L. David Roper."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electric Vehicles Personal Transportation of the Future Future Public Transportation: hybrid bio-fueled buses & planes & electric trains L. David Roper My second electric car 2012: My first electric car: Sun Roper (2007-10) My Prius Plug-In 2005/2008-2012 2013: Converted 2006 Toyota Highlander Hybrid to plug-in. When an affordable 500-miles battery is ready, say goodbye to the gasoline car.

2 Why Drive an Electric Car?  High energy efficiency: ~90% (electric motor) vs ~25% (gasoline engine) and ~40% (diesel engine)  No vehicle emissions, greatly reduced noise & heat  Less total emissions versus gasoline car even for 100% coal electricity  Most emissions are eliminated with solar/wind electricity or moved to a central source with fossil fuels where large-scale control is possible.  Ultimate fuel source is solar, wind or any renewable electricity source.  Low “fuel” cost (~25% of equivalent gasoline car)  Low maintenance cost (<25% of gasoline car)  High performance: high torque at low speed!

3 Torque Comparison electric gasoline High torque at low speed yields exhilarating acceleration!!

4 U.S.-Crude-Oil Extraction Area under curve is the total amount to be extracted eventually. Shale Oil Will peak in about a decade and then fall rapidly!

5 World Crude-Oil Extraction Area under curve is the total amount to be extracted eventually. Adding extraction from tar sands and shale oil will not change the curve by much.

6 Crude-Oil-Prices Projection

7 Gasoline-Prices Projection

8 Natural Gas for Vehicles? Only for ~15 years! Natural gas extraction by fracking will peak within a decade and then fall off very fast! Recent studies of reserves indicate that this curve may be optimistic. fracking

9 Energy Cost of Operation Comparison Electric-car operating cost is <25% of gasoline- car operating cost (fuel plus maintenance).

10 Solar Electric and EVs Factor of ~10 However, car batteries lose energy capacity with time; so, there is a battery replacement cost. A rough calculation indicates that the break- even battery replacement cost is ~$5000.

11 Electricity Production in U.S.

12 Exponential rise in electricity production from renewables However, the U.S. is far behind many other countries

13 Laundromats & Gas Stations  Laundromats were mostly replaced by home washers/dryers.  Gas stations will be mostly replaced by home charging stations and fast public charging stations. Roper LEAF being charged ~98% of time in Roper garage.

14 Safety of Electric Cars  Nissan LEAF, Chevrolet Volt and Tesla S have top safety safety ratings  Battery was left intact in a burned out Nissan LEAF.burned out Nissan LEAF  Two Tesla-S sedans have been burned somewhat by a fire in the battery due to massive metal in road puncturing the battery case.  ~250,000 gasoline car fires/year in U.S. with ~400 deaths & ~1200 injuries. Full gasoline tank has ~10 time the combustible energy that a Tesla battery has. Batteries are in modules separated by firewalls.  Battery is automatically disconnected in a collision.  Manual battery disconnect is easily done.  EMS manuals and training are available.

15 Global Warming A century of global warming A century of global warming movie Burning fossil fuels is a major cause of global warming!

16 USA Car Commuting Distance An electric car with a 125-miles range would work for most commuters, and for a few more who can charge it at work for a few hours. 95% 98%

17 Electric-Cars Terminology  Gas-Electric Hybrid : Not a plug-in (E.g., Prius )  Plug-In Hybrid : motive energy partly from grid (E.g., Ford C-MAX Energi with 7.6 kWh battery)  Extended-Range Plug-in Hybrid : large battery (E.g., Chevrolet Volt with 16.5/10.5 kWh battery)  BEV : Battery Electric gets all energy from grid (E.g., Nissan LEAF with 24/21 kWh battery & Tesla S with 60-85 kWh battery)  Plug-In : Plug-in hybrid or BEV  Three charging levels (120V AC, 240V AC, 480V DC; Tesla Supercharger)  Battery Exchange : few-minutes exchange  V2G : Vehicle to Grid  V2H : Vehicle to Home for power outage backup

18 Electric Cars Available 2013  Nissan LEAF (24 kWh)  Ford Focus EV (23 kWh)  Mitsubishi i-MiEV (16 kWh)  Honda Fit EV (20 kWh)  BMW i3 (22 kWh)  Toyota RAV4 EV (41.8 kWh) ( 2WD only )  Chevrolet Spark EV (20 kWh)  Tesla S (sedan) (60 kWh, 85 kWh)  Tesla Roadster (53 kWh)(no longer made)  Smart Electric (17.6 kWh)  Most other brands in 2014-2015 Not all are available in every state.

19 Hybrid Plug-in Cars Available 2013  Chevrolet Volt (16.5/10.5 kWh)  Prius Plug-In (4.4 kWh)  Ford C-MAX Energi (7.6 kWh)  Honda Accord Plug-In (6.7 kWh) Honda Accord Plug-In  Mitsubishi Outlander AWD Plug-In (12 kWh) Mitsubishi Outlander AWD Plug-In Hybrid Plug-in Conversions  A123/Hymotion for Prius (5.4 kWh)  Enginer for Prius (2/4/8 kWh) Enginer  Plug-In Supply for Prius (4/10 kWh), Ford Escape (6/15 kWh) & Toyota Highlander/Camry (5/10 kWh) Plug-In Supply

20 U.S. Tax Credits for Plug-Ins  <5-kWh : $2,500.  5-kWh : $2500 + $417 = $2917  >5-kWh : Add $417/kWh  Maximum : $7500 ( 16 kWh or larger)

21 Plug-In Car Sales Compared to Prius Entry into U.S.

22 Sales Techniques for Electric Cars  Put butts in cars.  Drive one for 100 miles.  Race a 370Z at a red light!  Calculate the cost per mile.  Examine the very low maintenance cost

23 Parts Missing! Engine parts, mufflers, catalytic converters, oil & filter, gas tank, etc. Not shown here are the missing numerous transmission parts.

24 Electric-Car Components  Large DC battery (LEAF: 24 kWh; i-MiEV: 16 kWh)  Powerful AC electric motor (LEAF: 80 kW=107 hp)  Regeneration of gravitational and kinetic energy  Chargers ( 120V AC, 240V AC, 480V DC ) (LEAF: 6.6 kW)  DC to/from AC inverter (battery to/from motor/generator)  Auxiliary 12V battery & DC to DC converter  Cooling systems for motor, inverter and battery  Possibly heating system for battery  Electric steering, brakes and climate control  In-cab driver information about battery level, energy used and location of charging stations

25 Electric-Car Components (i-MiEV)

26 Nissan LEAF 24-kWh Battery Pack 48 replacable modules with 4 Lithium-ion cells each = 192 cell Under back seat Under front seat

27 Battery Capacity Loss with Time  Lithium batteries lose ~20% of energy capacity in 5 years for typical driver.  Lithium batteries lose ~30% of energy capacity in 10 years for typical driver.  Drivers need to expect less range in later years; so buy larger than needed.  At ~30% loss probably battery exchange with old battery used for renewable- energy storage.  At ~50% loss probably recycled.

28 Battery Calendar Life for 70% Capacity vs Temperature

29 Capacity vs Depth of Discharge & Charging Cycles Longer life by keeping SOC 20%-80%.

30 Why To Usually Charge to 80%  Charging is by constant current until the maximum voltage is reached; then constant voltage until current drops ~90%.  As a battery is charged up, its internal resistance increases.  The higher resistance generates more heat, raising the temperature of the battery.  High temperatures cause higher capacity loss.  Ions get trapped in the electrodes.

31 LEAF Capacity Left vs Miles Probably want to exchange battery before 30,000 miles.

32 LEAF Capacity Left vs Years & Place

33 LEAF Average Capacity Left vs Years Probably want to exchange battery before 10 years.

34 Battery Exchange  Nissan is working on a battery- exchange program.  Tesla is working on a battery- exchange program.  Batteries might be exchanged temporarily or permanently.  Batteries of reduced capacity can be used for renewable-energy storage.

35 Charging an Electric Car  Level-1 : 120-Volts AC ~12-Amperes (1.15 kW)  20-kWh battery fills in ~18 hours  Level-2_15A : 240-Volts AC ~15-Amperes (3.3 kW)  20-kWh battery fills in ~7 hours  Level-2_30A : 240-Volts AC ~30-Amperes (6.6 kW)  20-kWh battery fills in ~3.5 hours  Level-3 : 480-Volts DC ~125-Amperes (~60 kW)  20-kWh battery fills in ~0.5 hours  Faster for Tesla cars via Superchargers

36 Tesla Fast Charging Stations

37 Tesla Planned Superchargers None are on I-81 in Virginia!

38 Charging Stations (EVSE) GE dual station at Kroger Fuel Center on University City Boulevard Blacksburg VA Schneider station in Roper garage: ~$1100 installed Eaton station at Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke

39 Portable Charging Station Comes with car For 120-volts “trickle charging” Can be converted to 240-volts charging for $332 + ~$150 installation of 240-volts outlet.

40 State Programs to Install Charging Stations  Tennessee : 11,200 level-2 & 260 level-3  California : 10,000 level-2 & 200 level-3  Illinois : Largest level-3 charging network  Oregon & Washington : Level-3 stations along I-5, eventually with California from Canada to Mexico  North Carolina, South Carolina, Indiana, Ohio & Florida installing many stations  NE Electric Vehicle Network : Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont & D.C. installing many stations  What is wrong with Virginia?!!!!

41 Virginia Charging Stations Most level-2 stations in non-urban Virginia are Nissan dealers.

42 Level-1 Charging Stations in SW VA  6 in Kent Square Garage in Blacksburg  1 at YMCA in Blacksburg  1 at Town Hall in Blacksburg  1 at Blacksburg Motor Company in Blacksburg  Several needed at long-term parking lot at Roanoke Airport  Several needed at Roanoke Civic Center  Several needed at Jefferson Center in Roanoke  Several needed at Salem Civic Center

43 Level-2 Charging Stations in SW VA  2 at Kroger Fuel Center in Blacksburg, free  1 at Shell Fuel Center in Blacksburg, $2 for 2 hours  2 at Campus Auto in Blacksburg, free  2 at The Inn at Virginia Tech, free  1 at Corporate Research Center, free  1 at Warm Hearth, $1/hour  2 at New River Nissan in Christiansburg, free for LEAFs  3 at Volvo Truck plant in Dublin, free  1 at Hotel Floyd in Floyd, get RFID wand from desk clerk. More planned.  1 at Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke, $1/hr  1 at River House in Roanoke, free  2 at First Team Nissan in Roanoke, free for LEAFs  Other Nissan dealers in SW Virginia, free for LEAFs  A few in personal garages and driveways

44 Level-2 Charging Stations in SW VA  Needed at Roanoke Airport short-term parking lot  Needed in Center-in-the-Square garage in Roanoke  Needed at Roanoke Civic Center  Needed at Hotel Roanoke  Needed at Jefferson Center in Roanoke  Needed at Salem Civic Center  Needed in Pulaski  Needed in Pearisburg  Needed in Martinsville or Rocky Mount  Needed in Marion  Needed in Lexington or Buena Vista  Needed at 50-miles intervals at I-81 exits/rest-stops

45 Planning for Green Housing  All plans for green houses should including wiring for current or future charging stations. In most cases the EVs will be charged over 95% of the time in the garage.  All plans for green apartment houses should include conduit in the parking lots for current or future charging stations.  All plans for green commercial buildings should include conduit in the parking lots for current or future charging stations.

46 Running Out of Charge?!  You can use any 120-volts outlet to get enough charge to get to a faster station.  Nissan will haul a dead vehicle in free for the first 3 years.  All Nissan dealers have two level-2 charging stations; some will have level-3 stations  AAA is developing a charging station on trucks.  Businesses which have charging stations on a truck may develop.

47 Vehicle to Grid (V2G)  Millions of electric cars connected to the national grid.  Charge at early morning low-grid-load times and drive to work.  Recharge at morning at work.  Discharge into grid at afternoon high-grid- load times, with enough charge left to drive home. (~$3000/year profit)

48 Electric Cars’ Batteries as Backup Power (V2H)  Backup power for the grid at high- load times. Estimates of $3000/year earnings for electric-car owners.  Old batteries from electric cars in locations for grid storage.  Backup power for homes when the grid is down. Nissan may market this soon. Requires a house circuit with needed devices on it.

49 Hybrid-Electric Cars as Backup Power (V2H)  3/4-kVa 240/120-V Plug-Out Island Prius kit ($1899/$2899)  2/3-kVa 120-V Plug-Out Island Prius kit ($799/$1499) Soon to be available for other hybrid-electric vehicles.

50 Game Changers  Nissan LEAF Model S (2013)  ~$29,500 low price (minus $7500 tax credit : ~$22,000 )  ~$1,100 extra for 6.6-kW charger  15% increase in range (EPA 73 to 84 miles)  Installing level-3/480-volts DC charging stations at dealers in U.S., starting on west coast  Tesla Model S Sedan  40, 60 or 85 kWh batteries  Plans to put fast charging stations within range of Model S upper two versions across U.S. within 2 years.  Negative: nearest dealer to Roanoke is in D.C.

51 Battery/Battery Hybrid  Tesla has patented the concept of using a lithium-ion (LI) battery (medium energy density and high power density) with a lithium-air (LA) battery (high energy density and medium power density).  The LI battery would be used to provide energy during brief driving periods requiring high power (accelerating and climbing hills) and the LA battery would be used to provide energy during periods requiring low power (cruising).  The LA battery also can recharge the LI battery.

52 Battery/Battery Hybrid

53 My Ideal Cars  An AWD electric car with a 200-miles range (Tesla X ?).Tesla X  An AWD biodiesel-electric plug-in hybrid with at least a 10-kWh battery (VW CrossBlue ?).VW CrossBlue

54 Nissan LEAF LEAF = L eading E nvironmentally-friendly A ffordable F amily car LEAF Roper delivered 7 May 2012 Note aerodynamic protruding headlights. Holds the record of the best selling electric car of all time.

55 LEAF Air Flow Protruding headlights reduce drag and wind noise due to side mirrors.

56 LEAF Underneath Smooth underbody reduces drag.

57 LEAF Specifications  24 kWh battery ( 21 kWh useable )  Battery warranty: 100,000 miles/8 years + Capacity warranty: 70% in 5 years or 60,000 miles  Battery weight: 648 lbs  Motor power: 80 kW=107 hp  Weight: 3354 lbs ; cargo: 1400 lbs  6 air bags  Heated seats front & back, steering wheel and side mirrors  Smart-phone control of heating/cooling and charging

58 LEAF Battery  Lithium-ion, lithium-manganate cathodes, carbon anodes  48 modules containing 4 cells = 192 cells  Total weight = 294 kg (648 lbs)  Energy density: 140 Wh/kg  Power density: 2.5 kW/kg  Extreme crash shielding  Level-1/120-volts charging: 21 hours  Level-2/240-volts charging: 3.5/7 hours  Level-3/480-volts charging DC: 80% in 30 minutes

59 LEAF Battery Location Low center of gravity provides excellent road behavior.

60 2012 LEAF Range vs Speed

61 interstate town 2013 range increased by ~15%

62 LEAF Charging Ports Level-3 on left, levels 1 & 2 on right

63 LEAF Charging Ports

64 LEAF Level-1/120V Charging Cord Can be converted to level-2/240-volts. Smaller for 2013

65 Level-2/240V Charging Stations The one Nissan sells.The one Dave Roper has; sold by Home Depot.

66 Wireless Induction Charger The one Nissan is developing. Evatran in Wytheville VA is developing one that is in front; sold & installed by Sears.

67 Battery Charging Status Charging indicators inside windshield. This one shows that the battery is fully charged.

68 Driver Controls

69 Pushing a button on steering wheel shows driving range and nearby charging stations.

70 LEAF Driver’s Display 2013 shows SOC

71 Quick Controls Top button shows driving range on center display. Steering-Wheel Controls 2013 has ECO mode button for less acceleration

72 Shifting into D twice actuates ECO mode (B mode for 2013) for more regeneration. Shift Knob

73 Center Display

74 Energy Display

75 Apps for Cell Phones/Internet

76 2012 EPA Ratings

77 2013 EPA Ratings The 75-miles range is the average of 80% charged (66 miles) and 100% charged (84 miles).

78 LEAF Drive Through Water & Snow

79 Recycling  Much of LEAF is made from recycled materials.  Designed for high recycling of materials.  Battery modules can be individually replaced.  Batteries after decline can be used for grid storage.  Batteries are recyclable.

80 Driving a LEAF in the NRV  Blacksburg to Floyd & back many times  Blacksburg to Roanoke & back, level-2 charging @ various places many times  Blacksburg to Pulaski & back several times  Christiansburg to Pearisburg & back  Blacksburg to Wytheville & back, level-2 charging 4 hours at Blue Ridge Nissan  Blacksburg to Grandin Village & back several times, level- 2 charging at daughter’s house  Blacksburg to Mt. Lake & Cascades Park and back  Blacksburg to Daleville and back, level-1 charging there  Blacksburg to VWCC and back, level-1 charging there  Blacksburg to Lynchburg and back, charging in Roanoke and Lynchburg Nissan in Forest

81 Possible LEAF Trips from Blacksburg  Harrisonburg and back, charging at Roanoke, Staunton & Harrisonburg  Charlottesville and back, charging at Roanoke, Staunton and Charlottesville  Hot Springs or Greenbrier WV and back, charging at Covington  Bluefield WV and back, charging at Cole Nissan  BIG ONE: to LEAF plant at Smyrna TN (409 miles) and back, charging at 7 places along the way.

82 Why Lease/Buy a Nissan LEAF  Reduce carbon emissions per mile traveled  Reduce use of fossil fuels per mile traveled  Reduce use of energy per mile traveled  Reduce traffic noise  Improve vehicle performance  Increase driving mindfulness  Increase public knowledge of electric cars  Increase desirability of renewable energy  Why lease: EV technology will greatly improve in 3 years.

83 References  The 2011 Electric Car Guide: Discover the truth about owning and using electric cars.  Charged Up! The Definitive Guide to Plug- In Electric Vehicles 4 th Edition 2013   Vehicles.htm Vehicles.htm  EAF.htm EAF.htm  per2013.htm per2013.htm



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