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Presentation on theme: "NIST/OLES."— Presentation transcript:


2 Law Enforcement PPE for Use in Violent Situations
Alim Fatah, PhD National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Law Enforcements Standards (OLES)

3 Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES)
OLES is a program management organization that designs and manages standards-development and research projects on behalf of agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), and others. Within OLES are six program areas: Weapons and Protective Systems; Detection, Inspection, and Enforcement Technologies; Forensic Sciences; Public Safety Communication Systems; Critical Incident Technologies; and Public Safety and Security Technologies. These program areas conduct a vast range of projects related to protective clothing, communication systems, investigative aids, security devices, traffic enforcement equipment, vehicles, firearms and ammunition, detection of concealed weapons and explosives, forensic science, homeland security, and domestic preparedness NIST/OLES

4 Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES)
Examples of Standards in place: NIJ – Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ – Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ – Walk-Through Metal Detectors for Use in Concealed Weapon and Contraband Detection NIJ – Hand-Held Metal Detectors NIST/OLES

5 Project Goals Define performance standards and testing methods for Law Enforcement PPE used in violent situations (Riot Gear) Develop a suite of standards that can be used for equipment testing certification to ensure it meets minimum performance requirements NIST/OLES

6 Project Description UK suite of standards serves as a model
BS 7971: Protective Clothing for Use in Violent Situations and Training Utilizes UK testing standards Defines performance requirements based on attacker capabilities Force delivered, location of strike, method of delivery Base these standards on US testing standards and performance criteria ASTM OSHA The UK suite of standards has 10 sections in all 8 of these have been released 2 more are still under development Mandated in the UK by the - Police Health and Safety Act 1997 - Police (Health and Safety) Regulations 1999 NIST/OLES

7 Section 1: General Requirements
Applies to all PPE Physically innocuous No sharp edges No rough surfaces Components can not harm user Chemically safe No allergens or toxins Must not degrade to form allergens NIST/OLES

8 Section 1: General Requirements
Assessment of ergonomic performance and compatibility Defines activities performed while wearing PPE Combinations to evaluate compatibility Example: Evaluation of Personal Defense Shields Wear the following Shoulder Protector Elbow and forearm protector Gloves Coverall Do the following activities Standing with arm movements Walking and running Assessment of physical discomfort and psychological irritations NIST/OLES

9 Section 2: Risk Assessment
General method of performing a risk assessment Stage 1: Determine who is responsible Identify who is supposed to make relevant decisions Stage 2: Determine what the hazards and risks are Stage 3: Determine how hazards can be eliminated and the risks can be controlled Stage 4: Deciding what actions are to be taken Stage 5: Implementation Stage 6: Continuous evaluation Never completed Establish a timetable for a full re-assessment OSHA publishes a guide to risk assessment This chapter is a general overview of these principles as they apply to law enforcement PPE NIST/OLES

10 Section 2: Risk Assessment
Stage 1: Determine what the protective clothing and equipment need to do Stage 2: Collect information about the PPE that is available Stage 3: User trials Stage 4: Establish procedures Storing Issuing Maintaining Record keeping Stage 5: Introduction of the PPE Stage 6: Continuous evaluation NIST/OLES

11 Section 3: Personal Defense Shields
First line of defense that prevents or reduces the risk of injury from commonly faced hazards Metal bars Timbers Baseball bats Axes Spikes and knives Bricks, bottles other lofted weapons Gasoline bombs Can also serve as a means of restraining an individual NIST/OLES

12 Physical Inspection and Assessment of Surface Condition
Shield Blade Bolt Head Washer r1 Lock Nut Strike Face < 240 mil < 400 mil r2 Shield must be designed in a manner that prevents its components from harming the opponents. Bolts that penetrate through to the far side of the shield must not stick out to far to prevent them from being used as a weapon. Sample Physical requirements All materials, fixings, fasteners and surfaces must be free of sharp edges and rough surfaces The radius of curvature for all edges must be greater than in (1.5 mm) The maximum height of any step is in (6 mm) The maximum height of any projection consisting of a number of steps is 0.4 in (10 mm) NIST/OLES

13 Shield Flame Resistance and Flame Preconditioning
Shield is covered with flammable liquid Burn for 25 sec Pass / fail criteria No drips due to melting No excessive warping This is done prior to all impact testing This test may be abandoned in favor of smaller, more controllable conditions “Simulated gasoline” is used as flame source. It is a mixture of heptane, toluene, and corn oil Set shield at a 45° angle with face side up Pour liquid over the top of the shield and allow it to run off Flip shield 90° such that its face is pointed downward Light liquid in base on fire Flames should extinguish after 25 sec ± 5 sec NIST/OLES

14 Shield Blunt impact test
Large, blunt striker mass = 15 lb drop height = 6.5 ft Pass / fail criteria No cracking of shield blade No fragments on the splinter sheet Shields are flame preconditioned Multiple impacts to the face of the shield followed by individual impact to identified weak points Looks for macroscopic failure of the shields NIST/OLES

15 Shield Impact Deformation Test
ASTM F736 Rounded tip striker Mass = lbs Drop height = 3.3 ft Pass / fail criteria Maximum deformation < 1in No fragmentation This test is performed on a small discs of material cut from the face of the shield These discs are flame preconditioned Discs are supported on a ring that allows their center to be displaced on impact NIST/OLES

16 Shield blade cut resistance
Impactor Simulate machete striking top edge of shield 30° Blade Mass = 11 lbs Drop height = 6.7 ft Pass / fail criteria No cut or crack can extend more than 2 in from top edge of shield Heavy, impactor that is ground to a sharpened edge Not “razor” sharp but a sharpened, heavy knife NIST/OLES

17 Section 4: Limb Protectors
Shoulder Upper arm Elbow and forearm Thigh Knee and shin NIST/OLES

18 Limb Protectors Zones of Protection
Define protection zone as a function of a control dimension Example: Shin protector Length = 25% user’s height NIST/OLES

19 Limb Protectors Impact Tests
Impactor 5.5 lbs Drop height Determined by designated protection level of protector 1 ft – 4 ft Pass fail criteria Maximum peak transmitted force Differs according to item being tested Different limb protectors will be supported by different anvil shapes A force transducer is placed on the back side of the protector to measure peak transmitted force. NIST/OLES

20 Limb Protectors Blade Impact Tests
Striker Simulate skipped tile Mass = 5.5 lb (2.5 kg) Drop height 8 – 48 in depending on protector being tested. Pass/fail criteria Maximum transmitted force No cuts longer than inch through all layers This is not meant to simulate a stab with a knife. This is a skipped tile or thrown glass. These protectors are NOT stab resistant NIST/OLES

21 Section 5: Footwear Standard footwear must protect from slipping and electrical hazards Footwear for use in situations where violence is expected must meet relevant ASTM requirements ASTM F 2412 Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection ASTM F 2413 Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Foot Protection NIST/OLES

22 Footwear: ASTM Requirements
Required of all protective footwear Toe impact resistance 50 ft * lbs force Compression resistance 50 ft*lbs force NIST/OLES

23 Additional requirements
Abrasion resistant non-leather outsoles ASTM D 1630 NFPA Abrasion index > 100 Cracking resistance of soles under flexing ASTM D 1052 < in crack growth after 30,000 flexes Resistance of soles to fuel oils ASTM D 471 Slip resistance of outsoles ASTM F 609 – 05 Tear resistance of outsoles ASTM D 624 The standard under development will simply call out pre-existing ASTM standards and set performance requirements. These requirements can be adjusted over time. NIST/OLES

24 Additional Requirements (Cont)
Resistance of sole to hot contact Heating element is brought into contact with sole 572 °F Pass / fail criteria No melting or cracking in polymeric soles Sole of protective footwear is brought into contact with a very hot piece of metal. NIST/OLES

25 Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection
Abrasion resistance ASTM D4966 (Martindale Abrasion) No breakthrough after 500 cycles at 1.3 psi Blade cut resistance ASTM F 1790 Must be 2.5 X as resistant to cuts as canvas Tearing resistance ASTM D 2261 (Tongue rip procedure) Must resist tearing at lbf Standard will be written in a manner that utilizes pre-existing test methods. All of the tests above are currently used to test leather NIST/OLES

26 Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection
Puncture resistance ASTM F 1342 Must not be penetrated with 13.5 lbf applied to probe This ASTM test is normally used for latex gloves It is being adapted for use in thicker protective gloves The probe used in this test is fatter and slightly duller than the standard probe. Similarly, the sample stage has a wider hole. NIST/OLES

27 Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection
Dexterity test ASTM F 2010 – 00 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Glove Effects on Wearer Hand Dexterity Using a Modified Pegboard Test Test of thermal protection ISO 17493: Clothing and equipment for protection against heat - Test method for convective heat resistance using a hot air circulating oven Must not allow a second degree burn according to evaluation criteria described in ASTM F 1060 Standard Test Method for Thermal Protective Performance of Materials for Protective Clothing for Hot Surface Contact The dexterity test has the test subject move pins around on a board. The UK test has the user pick up the smallest possible rod from a flat surface. NIST/OLES

28 Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection
Impact resistance Striker Mass = 5.5 lbs Drop height = 8 in Pass / fail criteria No sharp edges created on glove Maximum peak transmitted force = 900 lbf NIST/OLES

29 Section 7: Slash resistant gloves
Must meet similar requirements as other gloves for Abrasion resistance Tear resistance Puncture resistance Dexterity Blade cut resistance 20 X as resistant as canvas material In the UK test, a blade reciprocates over the surface of a glove In the US test, a sharp blade makes a single pass through the material being tested as force is measured NIST/OLES

30 Section 8: Blunt trauma body protectors
Torso protectors Equestrian Must comply with ASTM F 1937 Impact tests Defines zones of protection Pedestrian Must comply with ASTM F 1937 with different zones of protection ASTM already has standards in place that are copied in the UK Law enforcement PPE Standards NIST/OLES

31 Abdomen and Genital Protectors
Specifies Zones of protection Impact tests Brick edge impactor Ball impactor Restraint tests Defines maximum displacement under load and after load is withdrawn Separate tests are described for both male and female genital protectors. The male protectors must maintain a certain space under the protector whereas the female protector looks at transmitted force values. NIST/OLES

32 Sections under development
Training suits and equipment Coveralls NIST/OLES

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