Presentation on theme: "Second language learners and real-life contexts of writing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Second language learners and real-life contexts of writing Katja Mäntylä and Mirja Tarnanen
2 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen CEFLING Linguistic Basis of the Common European Framework for L2 English and L2 Finnishproject funded by the Academy of Finlandbased at the University of Jyväskylä; part of the European SLATE network (Second Language Acquisition and Testing in Europe)homepage:Collaboration between SLA and Language Testing researchers in Lancaster and Jyväskylä. We are part of the SLATE network (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK)& mirja.
3 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen Formulaic sequencesproblems with the terminologycollocations, phrases, greetings, idioms, etc .role in language learning (and teaching*)learner texts have to an extent been studiedForsberg et al. (2008), Erman (2007)challenges in looking at texts (Wray 2008)at lower levels of proficiency, examining just the sequences is not very fruitful other aspects to be taken into accounthow to examinequality/quantity. Finnish and English very different types of languages (Finnish synthetic with its rich use of inflections)functions(L1 effect)Great idea to observe textbooks – with a zero result& mirja.
4 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen Research questionsappearance/development of formulaic sequences from one CEFR level to anotherfunctions of various expressionsinformative, situational, organizational, evaluative, modal (Moon 1998)CEFR. Based on halliday& mirja.
5 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen DataIn the Cefling -project7th-9th grade English (FL) and Finnish (L2) learners893 Finnish as a L2 and English as a FL learnerseach learner/subject completed 3-4 writing tasksthe English performances were rated by 4 raters, and Finnish ones by 3 raters (to assure the reliability of ratings)the performances were rated using a CEFR-scale (a compilation of different writing scales) and a national (curriculum) writing scale based on CEFRIn this study2 task types: a message to the teacher and a message to an Internet storeover 40 texts per language and per tasksThe main focus on the levels A1-B1Koska B2:sia varsin vähän-& mirja.
6 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen Task 1to the teacherYou have not been able to go to school during one week, and you will have an English test soon. Send your teacher, Mary Brown, an in which youtell why you have been absent,ask about two details regarding the exam, andask about two more details of the classes of the week.Do not forget to begin and finish the appropriately.structured; limitations to the contentno instructions as to the register a challenge to Finns writing in Englishsome instructions as to the structure of the textFUNCTIONS: conveying information, explaining the situation, modalityReal-life vs. kouluaine. Nöäihin selitystä sitten poisjätetyistä slideista.& mirja.
7 Task 2 E-mail to an Internet Store Your parents have ordered you a computer game from an Internet store, but the software is not working as you wished. Send the store an in which you tellwho you are,why you are contacting them (mention and describe two problems),what you would like to be done, andhow you can be contacted.Do not forget to begin and finish the appropriately.structured; limitations to the contentthe task requires a semi-formal registergiven advice on the content helps in structuring the textFUNCTIONS: conveying information, explaining the situation, asking questions
8 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen Analysisfunctions of the expressions (according to Moon)informational, situational, organizational,evaluative, modal rough figuresthe definition of a sequence fairly loosemodality/pragmatic aspectthe use of the conditional/imperative/questionsbeginning/ending the messagepleaseclause structuresthe use of conjunctions cohesion, coherence and fluency greatly affect the gradingKollokaatioita joka tasolla.& mirja.
9 Results - Rough figures: English Katja Mäntylä & Mirja TarnanenResults - Rough figures: EnglishWordsClausesInf.Sit.Org.Ev.Mod.Conj.TEISA141.8184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.82.00.21.01.3A251.063.410.718.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1B174.364.313.010.23.04.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206B283.585.414.7220.127.116.11.56.55.4Infon määrä ei oikein voi lissäntyä muut aspektit nousee kehiin.Miksi viesti kauppaan ero A2 ja B1 olematon??????& mirja.
10 Results - Rough figures: Finnish Katja Mäntylä & Mirja TarnanenResults - Rough figures: FinnishWordsClausesInf.Sit.Org.Ev.Mod.TEISA123.818.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199A235.748.69.012.44.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206B152.154.7220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.32.2B2 missing, only two textsResults: MeTE=Message to the teacherIS=Message to an Internet store& mirja.
11 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen Results – A1EnglishFinnishSequences- Organizationalthats whysitten ’then’, vielä ’yet’beginning and ending of the message usually missing- SituationalPrepositional phrasesfrom Finland, out from schooleilen ’yesterday’, kaksi kertaa ’two times’, joskus ’sometimes’- ModalVery straightforward; imperativeI want you sendsome attempts to be polite : If you can, Can I haveVery straightforwardHaluan että ’I want that’Also conditional used but inaccuratelyHaluasin vaiha ’I would like to change’CollocationsMostly evaluative Adj/advwork well, good and beautifultoimia huonosti ’does not work’, saada rahat takaisin ’get money back’Conjunctionsco-ordinatorsso, and, but – used quite frequently but not idiomaticallyco-ordinators and some subordinatorsja ’and’, koska ’because’Situationality hyvä esimerkki miten kielien väliset typologiset erot vaikuttaa& mirja.
12 A1 Typical of a performance at this level: texts are short the task is not completeda text can be partly illegible and to an extent incoherent BUT it is a text not ”separate words”
13 Results – A2 English Finnish Sequences Conjunctions - Organizational metatext: I want to tell you about, the first reason ismore metatext: Ongelma on se, että ’the problem is that’- Situationallast week, in your shopviikon aikana ’during the week’, pari päivää sitten ’a couple of days ago’- ModalConditional: I wud like a new better game, I like you to sendImperative + please: anser quigly please. Give me please the homeworks.more appropriate: jos on mahdollista ’if it is possible’, kiitos paljon ’thank you very much’Collocationsmore target-like high temperaturetulla läksyjä ’get homework’, sammuttaa tietokone ’switch off the computer’Conjunctionssubordinatorsbecause, thatmore frequentsiis ’accordingly’ , kun ’when’
14 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen Typical of a performance at this level:texts are slightly longer and more detailedthe task is almost completedthe text is quite clear BUT it may be impolite but quite well organized or the other way round. Idiomaticity and accuracy may still be very much lacking.Explain accuracy& mirja.
15 Results – B1 English Finnish Sequences - Organizational much more metatext: This is about; the reason is that, first of all, secondly, that’s allmore metatext: Minulla on pari kysymystä ’I have a couple of questions’, Haluisin myös tietää ’I would also like to know’- Situationalthe number of situational expressions increases adds to the coherence for a week, last Fridayviikon päästä ’after a week’, vihdoin ’at last’- Modalmore variation: Please, answer me soon; I want to ask you some questions, I would be very happy if you could sendmore accurate use of the conditional: voisitko kertoa ’Could you tell’, moderation: saanko ’can I have’Collocationsadv+adj combinationsasentaa peli ’install the game’, se (burana) vaikuttaa ’ it (Parasetamol) has an effect’Conjunctionsthe number increasesseveral clauses in a sentencemore variety, the number increasesjoten ’thus’, joko-tai ’either-or’
16 B1 Typical of a performance at this level: organizational and situational sequences more frequentmodal expressions much more accurate and politesequences get more complexthe task (almost) fully completed
17 Results – B2 English and Finnish: -more complex sequences, in particular organizational and modal ones:If either of those can’t be done, I’d appreciate your help, I’d like you to cover the costsVoisitteko korjata sen tietokonepelin jotenkin tai lähettää uuden? Tai onko mahdollista saada rahaa siitä takaisin?’Could you fix the game somehow, or send a new one? Or is it possbile to get some money back?’
18 Katja Mäntylä & Mirja Tarnanen Conclusionsmodality more obvious and more accurate at level B1organizational elements appear across the levels but differences in variation, accuracy and complexitythe effect of the taskdifferent types of languages: strongly inflectional vs. analytic/synthetic languageEi vastaa tavallista A1 kuvausta, yksittäisiä sanoja; määrällinen vertailu ei järkevää – järkevämpää functional and pragmatic point of view& mirja.
19 Conclusions – pedagogical challenges Katja Mäntylä & Mirja TarnanenConclusions – pedagogical challengestowards more real-life writing (context, reader, register, functions) vs. traditional school writing (separate expressions and sentences, translating sentences and short descriptions)focusing in teaching and assessing on pragmatic aspects rather than on grammarGrammar eri asia eri kielissä, suomessa morfologia vahvassa asemassa& mirja.