# Compilation 2007 Code Generation Michael I. Schwartzbach BRICS, University of Aarhus.

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Compilation 2007 Code Generation Michael I. Schwartzbach BRICS, University of Aarhus

2 Code Generation Code Generation Phases  Computing resources, such as: layout of data structures offsets register allocation  Generating an internal representation of machine code for statements and expressions  Optimizing the generated code (ignored for now)  Emitting the code to files in assembler format  Assembling the emitted code to binary format

3 Code Generation Joos Code Generation  Compute offsets and signatures  Generate code for static initializers  Generate code for statements and expressions  Optimize the generated code (ignored for now)  Compute locals and stack limits  Emit Jasmin code  Assemble Jasmin code to class files

4 Code Generation Computing Offsets  Each formal and local variables must have an offset in the stack frame  The this object always has offset 0  The naive solution: enumerate all formals and locals  The better solution: reuse offsets for locals in disjoint scopes  The clever solution: exploit liveness information must still respect the runtime types of locals

5 Code Generation Naive Offsets public void m(int p, int q, Object r ) int x = 42; int y ; { int z ; z = 87; } { boolean a ; Object b ; { boolean b ; int z ; b = true; boolean c ; c = b && (x==87); } { int y ; y = x; } 4 5 123 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 max = 12

6 Code Generation Better Offsets public void m(int p, int q, Object r ) int x = 42; int y ; { int z ; z = 87; } { boolean a ; Object b ; { boolean b ; int z ; b = true; boolean c ; c = b && (x==87); } { int y ; y = x; } 4 5 123 6 6 7 8 9 10 8 max = 10

7 Code Generation Clever Offsets public void m(int p, int q, Object r ) int x = 42; int y ; { int z ; z = 87; } { boolean a ; Object b ; { boolean b ; int z ; b = true; boolean c ; c = b && (x==87); } { int y ; y = x; } 4 4 123 5 6 3 6 5 6 5 max = 6

8 Code Generation  The function sig(σ) encodes a type: sig( void ) = V sig( byte ) = B sig( short ) = S sig( int ) = I sig( char ) = C sig( boolean ) = Z sig(σ [] ) = [ desc(σ) sig(C 1. C 2..... C k ) = C 1 / C 2 /... / C k desc( void ) = V desc( byte ) = B desc( short ) = S desc( int ) = I desc( char ) = C desc( boolean ) = Z desc(σ [] ) = [ desc(σ) desc(C 1. C 2..... C k ) = L C 1 / C 2 /... / C k ; Computing Signatures (1/2)

9 Code Generation Computing Signatures (2/2)  This extends to fields, methods, and constructors  The field named x in class C: sig(C) / x  The method σ m ( σ 1 x 1,..., σ k x k ) in class C: sig(C) / m ( desc(σ 1 )...desc(σ k ) ) desc(σ)  The constructor C ( σ 1 x 1,..., σ k x k ) in class C: sig(C) / ( desc(σ 1 )...desc(σ k ) )V

10 Code Generation Static Initializers (1/2)  Initialization of static fields is performed when the class is loaded by the JVM  All static fields are first given default values  The code for initialization is written in a special method with the name  Fields that are static final and constant valued must then be initialized  Finally, all other static fields are initialized

11 Code Generation Static Initializers (2/2) public class A { public static int x = A.y+1; public static final int y = 42; public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.print(A.x); } public class A { public static int x = A.y+1; public static int y = 42; public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.print(A.x); } public class A { public static int x = A.y+1; public static final int y = A.fortytwo(); public static int fortytwo() { return 42; } public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.print(A.x); } 43 1 1

12 Code Generation Generating Code  Each statement and expression generates a sequence of bytecodes  A code template shows how to generate bytecodes for a given language construct  The template ignores the surrounding context  This yields a simple, recursive strategy for the code generation

13 Code Generation Code Template Invariants  A statement and a void expression leaves the stack height unchanged  A non- void expression increases the stack height by one  This is a local property of each template  The generated code must be verifiable  This is not a local property, since the verifier performs a global static analysis

14 Code Generation Code Templates (1/12) if( E ) S E ifeq false S false: if( E ) S 1 else S 2 E ifeq false S 1 goto endif false: S 2 endif: nop while( E ) S goto cond: loop: S cond: E ifne loop while(true) S loop: S goto loop

15 Code Generation { σ n ; S } S Code Templates (2/12) E ; E { σ n = E ; S } E σ store offset(n) S type(E) = void E ; E pop type(E) ≠ void throw E ; E athrow return E ; E σ return return; return σ store is either istore or astore depending on σ

16 Code Generation Code Templates (3/12) new C ( E 1,..., E k ) @ δ new sig(C) dup E 1... E k invokespecial sig(δ) this( E 1,..., E k ) @ δ aload 0 E 1... E k invokespecial sig(δ) @ δ indicates that δ is the corresponding resolved declaration

17 Code Generation Code Templates (4/12) super( E 1,..., E k ) @ δ aload 0 E 1... E k invokespecial sig(δ) aload 0 I 1 putfield sig(x 1 ) desc(σ 1 )... aload 0 I n putfield sig(x n ) desc(σ n ) The current class contains the non-static field initializations: σ 1 x 1 = I 1 ;... σ n x n = I n ;

18 Code Generation Code Templates (5/12) E. m ( E 1,..., E k ) @ δ E E 1... E k invokevirtual sig(δ) E. m ( E 1,..., E k ) @ δ E E 1... E k invokeinterface sig(δ) C. m ( E 1,..., E k ) @ δ E 1... E k invokestatic sig(δ) sig(δ) is an interface sig(δ) is a class

19 Code Generation (char) E E i2c E instanceof CE instanceof sig(C) Code Templates (6/12) ( C ) E E checkcast sig(C)

20 Code Generation Code Templates (7/12) thisaload 0 n σ load offset(n) E.f E getfield sig(f) desc(type(E.f)) E 1 [ E 2 ] E 1 E 2 σ aload type(E 1 [ E 2 ] ) = σ type(n) = σ C.f getstatic sig(f) desc(type(C.f)) σ aload is either iaload, baload, saload, caload, or aaload depending on σ

21 Code Generation Code Templates (8/12) n = E E dup σ store offset(n) E 1. f = E 2 E 1 E 2 dup_x1 putfield sig(f) desc(type(E 1.f)) E 1 [ E 2 ] = E 3 E 1 E 2 E 3 dup_x2 σ astore type(E 1 [ E 2 ] ) = σ type(n) = σ C. f = E E dup putstatic sig(f) desc(type(C.f))

22 Code Generation Code Templates (9/12) new σ [ E ] E multianewarray desc(σ) 1 E.length E arraylength E.clone() E invokevirtual sig(type(E)) /clone()Ljava/lang/Object;

23 Code Generation Code Templates (10/12) 42 ldc_int 42 true ldc_int 1 null aconst_null "abc" ldc_string "abc"

24 Code Generation Code Templates (11/12) E 1 + E 2 E 1 E 2 iadd type(E 1 + E 2 ) = int E 1 + E 2 E 1 E 2 invokevirtual S /concat(L S ;)L S ; type(E 1 + E 2 ) = String S  java/lang/String - E E ineg

25 Code Generation Code Templates (12/12) E 1 || E 2 E 1 dup ifne firsttrue pop E 2 firsttrue: E 1 && E 2 E 1 dup ifeq firstfalse pop E 2 firstfalse:

26 Code Generation Stack and Locals Limits  The generated code must explicitly state: the maximal number of local and formal offsets the maximal local stack height  This is used to determine the size of the frame  The locals limit is the maximal offset + (1 or 0)  The stack limit is computed by a static analysis

27 Code Generation Stack Limit Analysis  Consider the control flow graph of the bytecodes  succ(S i ) denotes the set of successor bytecodes  Δ(S i ) denotes the change in stack height by S i  S 0 denotes the first bytecode  For every bytecode S i we define the following integer-valued properties: B[[S i ]] denotes the stack height before S i A[[S i ]] denotes the stack height after S i

28 Code Generation Dataflow Constraints  B[[S 0 ]] = 0  A[[S i ]] = B[[S i ]] + Δ(S i )   x  succ(S i ): A[[S i ]] = B[[x]]  A[[S i ]]  0  These constraints must have a solution  The stack limit is the largest value of any A[[S i ]]

29 Code Generation Jasmin Class Format (1/3)  The overall structure of a Jasmin file is:.source sourcefile.class modifiers name.super sig( superclass ).implements sig( interface ).field modifiers desc( type ) constructors methods

30 Code Generation Jasmin Class Format (2/3)  The structure of a constructor is:.method modifiers sig( constructor ).throws sig( exception ).limit stack stacklimit.limit locals localslimit bytecodes.end method

31 Code Generation Jasmin Class Format (3/3)  The structure of a method is:.method modifiers sig( method ).throws sig( exception ).limit stack stacklimit.limit locals localslimit bytecodes.end method

32 Code Generation A Tiny Class public class Foo { public int y = 42; public Foo(int z) { y = y+z; } public String print(int n) { if (n==0) return new Integer(y).toString(); else return new Foo(y).print(n-1); }

33 Code Generation The Generated Code.source Foo.java.class public Foo.super java/lang/Object.field public "y" I.method public (I)V.limit stack 3.limit locals 2 aload_0 invokespecial java/lang/Object/ ()V aload_0 bipush 42 putfield Foo/y I aload_0 getfield Foo/y I iload_1 iadd dup_x1 putfield Foo/y I pop return.end method.method public print(I)Ljava/lang/String;.limit stack 3.limit locals 2 iload_1 iconst_0 if_icmpeq true2 iconst_0 goto end3 true2: iconst_1 end3: ifeq false0 new java/lang/Integer dup aload_0 getfield Foo/y I invokespecial java/lang/Integer/ (I)V invokevirtual java/lang/Integer/toString()Ljava/lang/String; areturn false0: new Foo dup aload_0 getfield Foo/y I invokespecial Foo/ (I)V iload_1 iconst_1 isub invokevirtual Foo/print(I)Ljava/lang/String; areturn.end method

34 Code Generation The Binary Class File cafe babe 0000 002e 001e 0c00 0a00 1901 0011 6a61 7661 2f6c 616e 672f 496e 7465 6765 7201 0010 6a61 7661 2f6c 616e 672f 4f62 6a65 6374 0900 0900 1701 0006 3c69 6e69 743e 0700 030c 0005 000d 0100 0346 6f6f 0700 0801 0005 7072 696e 740c 0016 001c 0a00 1d00 1501 0003 2829 5601 0004 436f 6465 0100 0179 0100 0a53 6f75 7263 6546 696c 6501 0001 4901 0004 2849 2956 0a00 0900 010a 0006 0007 0c00 0500 1201 0008 746f 5374 7269 6e67 0c00 0f00 1101 0008 466f 6f2e 6a61 7661 0100 1528 4929 4c6a 6176 612f 6c61 6e67 2f53 7472 696e 673b 0a00 0900 150a 001d 000b 0100 1428 294c 6a61 7661 2f6c 616e 672f 5374 7269 6e67 3b07 0002 0021 0009 0006 0000 0001 0001 000f 0011 0000 0002 0001 0005 0012 0001 000e 0000 0023 0003 0002 0000 0017 2ab7 0014 2a10 2ab5 0004 2a2a b400 041b 605a b500 0457 b100 0000 0000 0100 0a00 1900 0100 0e00 0000 3a00 0300 0200 0000 2e1b 039f 0007 03a7 0004 0499 0012 bb00 1d59 2ab4 0004 b700 0cb6 001b b0bb 0009 592a b400 04b7 001a 1b04 64b6 0013 b000 0000 0000 0100 1000 0000 0200 1800

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