Presentation on theme: "THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH Key Knowledge: 1.4- The role of determinants of health including the physical environment, biological, behavioural and social, in explaining variations in health status.Key Skill:- Use the determinants of health to explain differences in the health status of Australians and between population groups.
2 Social Determinants of Health Key Knowledge:Biological, behavioural and social determinants of health in explaining variations in health statusKey Skill:Use the determinants of health to explain differences in the health status of Australians and between population groups.
3 Social Determinants of Health Social determinants of health refer to the social environment including the broader social, cultural, environmental and economic factors.People who experience poor social and economic health conditions experience worse health in all societies.When people experience poor social determinants are more likely to experience two or more of them.Social determinants are now a focus for health authorities.
4 Social Determinants of Health Socioeconomic statusWorkUnemploymentSocial exclusion and isolationStressFood securityEarly life experiencesAccess to health care
5 Socioeconomic statusAs a general rule: the wealthier you are the healthier you are. The poorer you are the worst health outcomes experienced.Measured using three components:All three components impact on each other.E.G:income increases the opportunities for educationAn well paying occupation increases ones incomeAn education increases one job opportunities and therefore income.
7 Socioeconomic status High SES: Low SES: IMPACT ON HEALTH:High SES:Income increases ability to purchase healthy foods and therefore maintain a health BMI, increase immune systemAccess to health careAbility to understand health promotion messagesLow SES:Live in poorer areas with lack of physical resourcesPoorer quality of housing and also overcrowdingMore likely to smokeMore likely to have poor nutrition and lack of physical activityDiscuss each and link to health outcomes.E.g:Income increases ability to purchase healthy foods and therefore maintain a health BMI, increase immune systemAccess to health careAbility to understand health promotion messagesLive in poorer areas with lack of physical resourcesQuality of housingThere is also a relationship between socioeconomic status and many behavioural determinants. People who are more socioeconomically disadvantaged are:Less likely to take notice of health promotion messagesMore likely to smoke, drink and be overweight/obese.
8 Identify the long term conditions for which the highest/lowest SES suffer the greatest from. Suggest reasons for thisChoose three of the risk factors and indicate possible PMS issues.
9 QuintilesPopulation being broken up into fifths. Each fifth represents 20% of the population. The first quintile is the most disadvantaged, the fifth quintile is the most advantaged; all in relation to SES.
10 Work Different to ‘workplace’ in physical environment. Involves: Relationships with colleagues and employerFinancial position of companyThe status associated with your occupation in the communityThe demands of the jobPoor relationships impact on social health, lack of financial security increases stress and poor mental health, low level of status for occupation reduces confidence and self esteem and unreasonable demands lead to stress, anxiety and lack of appreciation.
11 UnemploymentThe unemployed have a higher chance of dying and more illness than those of similar age who are employed.High level of psychological and financial stress factors.
12 UnemploymentIMPACT ON HEALTH:Higher rates of suicide, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseaseAnxiety about job security can effect mental health, heart disease, risk factors of heart disease.Psychological problems such as stress and depressionHigher mortality and more illness and disability
13 Social exclusion and social isolation Social exclusion refers to the segregation that people experience if they are not adequately participating in the society it which they live. Such people have been referred to as ‘social outcasts’.Social isolation refers to not being in regular contact with others.Exclusion can result from racism, discrimination, stigmatisation, hostility and unemployment.
14 Social exclusion and social isolation Some examples of the causes and results of social exclusion include:Poor physical and mental healthDisabilityFamily breakdownHomelessnessLack of education and skillsLow incomeRelative povertyIMPACT ON HEALTH:Mental health problems such as depression and stressPoor self esteem
15 Stress‘Stressful circumstances, making people feel worried, anxious and unable to cope, are damaging to health and may lead to premature death.’ –definition of stress.A little bit of stress can be quite positive and can assist people in getting tasks done.When stress becomes too great the individual may feel incapacitated, becoming more vulnerable to a range of health conditions.What happens when we get stressed?Heart rate raisedFight or flightLong term stress=greater demands on the body= poorer wellbeing
16 Stress High blood pressure Stroke Infections Diabetes Heart attack IMPACT ON HEALTH:DiabetesHigh blood pressureHeart attackStrokeDepressionInfections
17 Food securityThe quality, availability and affordability of the food supply all affect what people eat.- definitionA shortage of food or lack of variety (food insecurity) can lead to deficiency and malnutritionExcess intake (also a form of malnutrition) can contribute to people eating too much and therefore putting themselves at risk of diet-related diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.People who are unable to access or afford healthy foods may be forced to buy cheaper processed foods, which are often made from poorer quality produce and have added fat, salt and/or sugar.Why might be experience food insecurity:Live in rural areasFinancial constraintsLow SES tend to be provided with poor quality food products in the areaLack of knowledge regarding food productsLack of transport
18 Food insecurity Deficiencies such as: Obesity Cardiovascular disease Discuss HOWIMPACT ON HEALTH:Deficiencies such as:Iron- anaemiaCalcium- osteoporosisVit C- poor immune systemObesityCardiovascular diseaseDiabetesDental cavityCancer
19 Early life experiences People are a product of their past experiences.Early life experiences shape individuals, their outlook on life, behaviours etc. and influence adult health.
20 Early life experiences Examples:Infants who have experienced strong emotional and positive stimulation are better prepared to take on the challenges of school, exhibit positive behaviour and are less likely to be socially excluded in adulthood.Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy, smoking, drug misuse etc can lead to poor foetus development and health issues later in life.Being exposed to regular intake of take away foods from an early age can result in food behaviour patterns later in life; these foods are high is sat fats, trans fats and sodium which may result in CVD, obesity and T2D.From an early age being around family members who smoke may cause the development of asthma or other respiratory conditions. It may also contribute to young people taking up smoking which may result in lung cancer or COPD later in life.Not having a family encourage physical activity and sport may result in sedentary behaviour during childhood and teenage years. This may result in excess energy being stored in the body and as a result, becoming overweight/obese.
21 Access to health careHealth care refers to the services that promote and preserve health through the diagnosis, treatment and management of disease and illness.Factors that can inhibit an individual’s ability to access health care = cultural, financial and other social barriersE.g females may not be able to visit a male GOLanguage barriersMedicine and services may not be culturally appropriate (indigenous)Low SES may not be able to afford health care and medicines* Access to health care is also a physical environment determinant. Do not discuss access to health care as a social determinant if it is related to proximity/health care being in their geographical location etc.Eg’s: Doctors, dentists, scientists, physiotherapists etc…
22 Access to health careIMPACT ON HEALTH:Increase/decrease mortality, life expectancy through detection and treatment of conditionsDecreased morbidity through education of healthy life choicesReduced low birth weight babies through monitoring and education throughout pregnancy.Discuss specific examples- similar to physical environment ‘access to health care’ answers.