# Applications of Newton’s Laws

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Applications of Newton’s Laws
Chapter 5 Physics chapter 5

The fundamental forces of nature
Gravitational interactions – dominant in the macroscopic world Weight and free fall Planetary orbits Electromagnetic interactions – dominant in the microscopic world Electric forces Static electricity Contact forces – normal, friction, etc. Magnetic interactions – caused by moving electric charges Physics chapter 5

Fundamental forces of nature
Strong interaction Holds the nucleus of an atom together Also called nuclear force Weak interaction Responsible for beta decay – radioactivity – by converting a neutron into a proton, and electron, and a neutrino. Physics chapter 5

Current theories Electroweak interaction Grand unified theory – GUT
Unites strong, electromagnetic, and weak Theory of everything – TOE Unites all four fundamental forces All speculative theories with many unanswered questions. Physics chapter 5

Friction When you slide a heavy box across the floor
You have to push with a strong enough force to get it moving. Once it is moving, you can keep it moving with less force than it took to get it started. If you make the box lighter, you need less force than before to start it and to keep it moving. Physics chapter 5

Forces from a surface When an objects rests or slides on a surface,
The surface exerts a normal force perpendicular to the surface And a frictional force parallel to the surface. The direction of the frictional force is such that it always opposes the relative motion of the two surfaces. Physics chapter 5

Kinetic Friction The frictional force that acts when a body slides over a surface is called kinetic friction. Its magnitude is given by: Coefficient of kinetic friction Magnitude of normal force Physics chapter 5

Static Friction The frictional force that acts on a body that is resting on a surface is called static Friction. Static friction is what resists the beginning of motion and makes it hard to get a box started sliding across the floor. The magnitude of static friction force is: Coefficient of static friction Magnitude of normal force Physics chapter 5

Static friction When Then the force applied to the object from an external force is equal to the static frictional force and the object is just about to start sliding. Physics chapter 5

Coefficients of friction
The coefficients of friction, both static and kinetic, have no units. The coefficients of friction must be less than 1. Physics chapter 5

Example A 52-N sled is pulled across a cement sidewalk at constant speed. A horizontal force of 36 N is exerted. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the sidewalk and the metal runners of the sled? 0.69 Physics chapter 5

On your own The sled from the example is now on packed snow. The coefficient of friction is If a person weighing 650 N sits on the sled, what force is needed to slide the sled across the snow at a constant speed? 84 N Physics chapter 5

Example A runaway baby buggy is sliding without friction across a frozen pond toward a hole in the ice. You race after the buggy on skates. As you grab it, you and the buggy are moving toward the hole at speed v0. The coefficient of friction between your skates and the ice as you turn out the blades to brake is mk. D is the distance to the hole when you reach the buggy, M is the mass of the buggy, and m is your mass. What is the lowest value of D such that you stop the buggy before it reaches the hole in the ice? Physics chapter 5

Equilibrium When the net force on a particle is zero
The particle is in equilibrium. It has a constant velocity. It has zero acceleration. Physics chapter 5

Example A 100-N body is shown suspended from a system of cords. What is the tension in the horizontal cord? Physics chapter 5

On your own A traffic light is supported by two wires as shown below. Which wire has the greatest tension? Wire 1 Wire 2 Physics chapter 5

Example A skier of mass 65.0 kg is pulled up a snow-covered slope at constant speed by a tow rope that is parallel to the ground. The ground slopes upward at a constant angle of 26° above the horizontal and you can ignore friction. Calculate the tension in the tow rope. Physics chapter 5

On your own A man is dragging a trunk up the loading ramp of a mover’s truck. The ramp has a slope angle of 20.0° and the man pulls upward with force F whose direction makes an angle of 30.0° with the ramp. How large a force F is required in order for the component Fx parallel to the ramp to be 28.0 N? How large will the component Fy then be? Physics chapter 5

Example – inclined plane
A 20-kg box rests on a frictionless ramp with a 15° slope. A mover pulls up on a rope attached to the box to pull it up the incline. If the rope makes an angle of 40° with the horizontal, what is the force the mover must exert on the box to give it an acceleration of 1 m/s2? Physics chapter 5

On your own The system shown below is in equilibrium, the incline is frictionless, and the pulley is massless and frictionless. What is the mass m? m 3.5 kg Physics chapter 5

Example Two children sitting on a sled at rest in the snow ask you to pull them. You oblige by pulling on the sled’s rope, which makes an angle of 40° with the horizontal. The children and sled have a combined mass of 50 kg. The coefficients of friction are ms = 0.2 and mk = Find the acceleration of the sled and children, if the tension in the rope is A) 100 N B) 140 N Physics chapter 5

On your own A 5-kg block is held at rest against a vertical wall by a horizontal force. What is the minimum horizontal force needed to prevent the block from falling if the coefficient of friction between the wall and the block is ms=0.40? Physics chapter 5