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Emotion Chapter 11 Emotion 4/12/2017Prepared by Krista D. Forrest, Ph.D., and Michael Lee These slides © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc., Toronto, Ontario. To print the slides in black and white using the original template (“Comet”), check the “pure black and white” box in the print dialog. Chapter 11 ©1999 Prentice Hall
Emotion Defining Emotion Elements of Emotion 1: The Body4/12/2017 Emotion Defining Emotion Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture Putting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender ©1999 Prentice Hall
Emotion 4/12/2017 Emotion A state of arousal involving facial and body changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Elements of Emotion 1: The Body4/12/2017 Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Primary and secondary emotions The face of emotion The brain and emotion Hormones and emotion Detecting emotions: Does the body lie? ©1999 Prentice Hall
Elements of Emotion 1: The Body4/12/2017 Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Primary emotions Emotions considered to be universal and biologically based. They generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt. Secondary emotion Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures. Three biological areas of emotion are facial expressions, brain regions and circuits, and autonomic nervous system. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Universal Expressions of Emotion4/12/2017 Universal Expressions of Emotion Facial expressions for primary emotions are universal. Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them. Facial feedback Process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed. Infants are able to read parental expressions. Facial expression can generate same expressions in others, creating mood contagion. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Emotion 4/12/2017 The Face of Anger Anger is universally recognized by geometric patterns on the face. In each pair, the left form seems angrier than the right form. Figure 9.8 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Aronoff, J., Woike, B. A., & Hyman, L. M. (1992). Which are the stimuli in facial dislpays of anger and happiness? Configurational bases of emotion recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, ©1999 Prentice Hall
Facial Expressions in Social ContextEmotion 4/12/2017 Facial Expressions in Social Context Across and within cultures, agreement often varies on which emotion a particular facial expression is revealing. People don’t usually express their emotion in facial expressions unless others are around. Facial expressions convey different meanings depending on their circumstances. People often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them. ©1999 Prentice Hall
The Brain and Emotion The amygdala Left prefrontal cortex4/12/2017 The Brain and Emotion The amygdala Responsible for assessing threat. Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear. Left prefrontal cortex Involved in motivation to approach others. Damage to this area results in loss of joy. Right prefrontal cortex Involved in withdrawal and escape. Damage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Emotion 4/12/2017 Hormones and Emotion When experiencing an intense emotion, 2 hormones are released. Epinephrine Norepinephrine Results in increased alertness and arousal. At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally. ©1999 Prentice Hall
The Autonomic Nervous SystemEmotion 4/12/2017 The Autonomic Nervous System Figure 9.5 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: ©1999 Prentice Hall
Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?4/12/2017 Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie? Polygraph testing relies on autonomic nervous system arousal. Typical measures: Galvanic Skin Response Pulse, blood pressure Breathing Fidgeting Figure 9.6 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: ©1999 Prentice Hall
Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting.Emotion 4/12/2017 Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. It is illegal to use for most job screening. Many government agencies continue to use for screening. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind4/12/2017 Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind How thoughts create emotions The two factor theory of emotion. Attributions and emotions. Cognitions and emotional complexity ©1999 Prentice Hall
Two-factor Theory of Emotion4/12/2017 Two-factor Theory of Emotion Physiological arousal Sweaty palms Increased heart rate rapid breathing Cognitive Label Attribute source of arousal to a cause To have an emotion, both factors are required Figure 9.11 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Schachter, S. (1964). The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional state. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1, New York: Academic Press. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Attributions and Emotions4/12/2017 Attributions and Emotions Perceptions and attributions are involved in emotions. How one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains it. For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal. Philosophy of life is also influential. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Cognitions and Emotional Complexity4/12/2017 Cognitions and Emotional Complexity Cognitions, and therefore, emotions, become more complex as a child’s cerebral cortex matures. Self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, do not occur until after infancy, due to the emergence of a sense of self and others. People can learn how their thinking affects their emotions and can change their thinking accordingly. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture4/12/2017 Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture Culture and emotional variation The rules of emotional regulation Display rules Body language Emotion work ©1999 Prentice Hall
Culture and Emotional Variation4/12/2017 Culture and Emotional Variation Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about. Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures. Ex. Schadenfreude Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to others. Tahitian and sadness Differences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages. ©1999 Prentice Hall
The Rules of Emotional Regulation4/12/2017 The Rules of Emotional Regulation Display Rules When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched. Body Language The nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly express. Emotion Work Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Putting it all together: Emotion and Gender4/12/2017 Putting it all together: Emotion and Gender Physiology and intensity Sensitivity to other people’s emotions Cognitions Expressiveness Factors which affect expressiveness Emotion work ©1999 Prentice Hall
Putting the Elements Together: Emotion and Gender4/12/2017 Putting the Elements Together: Emotion and Gender Physiology and intensity Women recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men. Men experience emotional events more intensely than do women. Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Possible reasons for differences in physiology and intensity.Emotion 4/12/2017 Possible reasons for differences in physiology and intensity. Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than females. Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains anger. Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions4/12/2017 Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions Factors which influence one’s ability to “read” emotional signals: The sex of the sender and receiver. How well the sender and receiver know each other. How expressive the sender is. Who has the power. Stereotypes and expectations. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Emotion 4/12/2017 Cognitions Men and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that provoke their anger. Women become angry over issues related to their partners disregard. Men become angry over damage to property or problems with strangers. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Expressiveness In North America women:Emotion 4/12/2017 Expressiveness In North America women: Smile more than men. Gaze at listeners more. Have more emotionally expressive faces. Use more expressive body movements. Touch others more. Acknowledge weakness and emotions more. Compared to women, men only express anger to strangers more. ©1999 Prentice Hall
Factors Influencing Emotional Expressiveness4/12/2017 Factors Influencing Emotional Expressiveness Gender roles Cultural norms The specific situation ©1999 Prentice Hall
Emotion Work and Gender4/12/2017 Emotion Work and Gender Women work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy. Men work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional. Why? Gender roles and status. ©1999 Prentice Hall
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